Cancer stem cells (CSCs) show self-renewal ability and multipotential differentiation, like normal stem
or progenitor cells, and which proliferate uncontrollably and can escape the effects of drugs and phagocytosis by
immune cells. Traditional monotherapies, such as surgical resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, cannot
eradicate CSCs, however, combination therapy may be more effective at eliminating CSCs. The present review
summarizes the characteristics of CSCs and several promising combination therapies to eradicate them.
Keywords: CSCs, combination therapy, nanoparticle, photothermal therapy, gene therapy, chemotherapy.
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