Detection of Mild Cognitive Impairment Based on Virtual Reality: A Scoping Review

Author(s): Shuo Wang, Huiru Yin, Guichen Li, Yong Jia, Minmin Leng, Qiuyan Meng, Chunyan Wang*, Li Chen*.

Journal Name: Current Alzheimer Research

Volume 17 , Issue 2 , 2020

  Journal Home
Translate in Chinese
Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Abstract:

Background: To delay the decline in cognition and reduce the incidence of dementia, the precise detection of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is necessary. The application of Virtual Reality (VR) technology in this detection can overcome the shortage of traditional paper-and-pencil tests.

Objective: This review aimed to summarize the research progress of the detection of MCI using VR.

Methods: Eight databases from their inception to November 19, 2019, were systematically searched for studies applying VR in the detection of MCI. A thematic analysis was conducted according to the specific detection purpose and the main corresponding cognitive domains assessed were summarized; characteristics of the VR applications were also summarized.

Results: Twenty-eight studies were finally included. The detection purposes included discrimination between healthy controls and those with MCI, discrimination between aMCI subtypes, detection of MCI patients at risk of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), and discrimination between MCI and AD. VR tasks assessing spatial memory were applicable for all detection purposes, and the assessment of combinations of memory and executive function seemed more sensitive. Executive function and intentional episodic memory could be assessed to discriminate among healthy controls, individuals with MCI and those with AD. Incidental episodic memory was effective in detecting MCI with hippocampal atrophy. The most common characteristics of the VR applications were the use of semi-immersion, joysticks or gamepad interactions and simple, one-time behavioral assessments.

Conclusion: VR applications are promising in the detection of MCI, but further research is needed for clinical use.

Keywords: Mild cognitive impairment, dementia, detection, discriminate, virtual reality, scoping review.

[1]
Patterson C, Lynch C, Bliss A, Lefevre M. Eds. World Alzheimer Report 2018. The state of the art of dementia research: New frontiers. London 2018.
[2]
American Psychiatric Association. Ed Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Washington, D.C. 2013; p. 5.
[3]
Petersen RC, Caracciolo B, Brayne C, Gauthier S, Jelic V, Fratiglioni L. Mild cognitive impairment: a concept in evolution. J Intern Med 275(3): 214-28. (2014).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joim.12190] [PMID: 24605806]
[4]
Petersen RC, Doody R, Kurz A, et al. Current concepts in mild cognitive impairment. Arch Neurol 58(12): 1985-92. (2001).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archneur.58.12.1985] [PMID: 11735772]
[5]
Petersen RC. Mild cognitive impairment as a diagnostic entity. J Intern Med 256(3): 183-94. (2004).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2796.2004.01388.x] [PMID: 15324362]
[6]
Alzheimer’s Disease International (ADI) About dementia 2017. Available from: https://www.alz.co.uk/about-dementia
[7]
Mitchell AJ, Shiri-Feshki M. Rate of progression of mild cognitive impairment to dementia--meta-analysis of 41 robust inception cohort studies. Acta Psychiatr Scand 119(4): 252-65. (2009).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.2008.01326.x] [PMID: 19236314]
[8]
Zygouris S, Ntovas K, Giakoumis D, et al. A preliminary study on the feasibility of using a virtual reality cognitive training application for remote detection of mild cognitive impairment. J Alzheimers Dis 56(2): 619-27. (2017).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-160518] [PMID: 28035922]
[9]
Bennys K, Rondouin G, Benattar E, Gabelle A, Touchon J. Can event-related potential predict the progression of mild cognitive impairment? J Clin Neurophysiol 28(6): 625-32. (2011).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNP.0b013e31823cc2d3] [PMID: 22146349]
[10]
Brooks LG, Loewenstein DA. Assessing the progression of mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer’s disease: current trends and future directions. Alzheimers Res Ther 2(5): 28. (2010).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/alzrt52] [PMID: 20920147]
[11]
Kontaxopoulou D, Beratis IN, Fragkiadaki S, et al. Exploring the profile of incidental memory in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis 65(2): 617-27. (2018).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-180328] [PMID: 30056423]
[12]
Mohammadi A, Kargar M, Hesami E. Using virtual reality to distinguish subjects with multiple- but not single-domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment from normal elderly subjects. Psychogeriatrics 18(2): 132-42. (2018).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/psyg.12301] [PMID: 29409155]
[13]
Seo K, Kim JK, Oh DH, Ryu H, Choi H. Virtual daily living test to screen for mild cognitive impairment using kinematic movement analysis. PLoS One 12(7)e0181883 (2017).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181883] [PMID: 28738088]
[14]
Yamato TP, Pompeu JE, Pompeu SM, Hassett L. Virtual reality for stroke rehabilitation. Phys Ther 96(10): 1508-13. (2016).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2522/ptj.20150539] [PMID: 27081204]
[15]
Ma M, Zheng H. Virtual reality and serious games in healthcare. Stu Comput Intell 169-92 (2011).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-17824-5_9]
[16]
Lee B, Chen Y, Hewitt L. Age differences in constraints encountered by seniors in their use of computers and the internet. Comput Human Behav 27(3): 1231-7. (2011).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2011.01.003]
[17]
Tarnanas I, Schlee W, Tsolaki M, Müri R, Mosimann U, Nef T. Ecological validity of virtual reality daily living activities screening for early dementia: longitudinal study. JMIR Serious Games 1(1)e1 (2013).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/games.2778] [PMID: 25658491]
[18]
Zygouris S, Giakoumis D, Votis K, et al. Can a virtual reality cognitive training application fulfill a dual role? Using the virtual supermarket cognitive training application as a screening tool for mild cognitive impairment. J Alzheimers Dis 44(4): 1333-47. (2015).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-141260] [PMID: 25428251]
[19]
García-Betances RI, Arredondo Waldmeyer MT, Fico G, Cabrera-Umpiérrez MF. A succinct overview of virtual reality technology use in Alzheimer’s disease. Front Aging Neurosci 7: 80. (2015).
[PMID: 26029101]
[20]
Valladares-Rodríguez S, Pérez-Rodríguez R, Anido-Rifón L, Fernández-Iglesias M. Trends on the application of serious games to neuropsychological evaluation: A scoping review. J Biomed Inform 64: 296-319. (2016).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbi.2016.10.019] [PMID: 27815228]
[21]
Wen D, Lan X, Zhou Y, Li G, Hsu SH, Jung TP. The study of evaluation and rehabilitation of patients with different cognitive impairment phases based on virtual reality and eeg. Front Aging Neurosci 10: 88. (2018).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2018.00088] [PMID: 29666577]
[22]
Arksey H, O’Malley L. Scoping studies: towards a methodological framework. Int J Soc Res Methodol 8(1): 19-32. (2005).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1364557032000119616]
[23]
Tarnanas I, Papagiannopoulos S, Kazis D, Wiederhold M, Widerhold B, Tsolaki M. Reliability of a novel serious game using dual-task gait profiles to early characterize aMCI. Front Aging Neurosci 7: 50. (2015).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2015.00050] [PMID: 25954193]
[24]
Caffò AO, De Caro MF, Picucci L, et al. Reorientation deficits are associated with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen 27(5): 321-30. (2012).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1533317512452035] [PMID: 22815081]
[25]
Lee JY, Kho S, Yoo HB, et al. Spatial memory impairments in amnestic mild cognitive impairment in a virtual radial arm maze. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 10: 653-60. (2014).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S58185] [PMID: 24790448]
[26]
Lesk VE, Shamsuddin SNW, Walters ER, Ugail H. Using a virtual environment to assess cognition in the elderly. Virtual Real (Walth Cross) 18(4): 271-9. (2014).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10055-014-0252-2]
[27]
Migo EM, O’Daly O, Mitterschiffthaler M, et al. Investigating virtual reality navigation in amnestic mild cognitive impairment using fMRI. Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn 23(2): 196-217. (2016).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13825585.2015.1073218] [PMID: 26234803]
[28]
Serino S, Morganti F, Di Stefano F, Riva G. Detecting early egocentric and allocentric impairments deficits in Alzheimer’s disease: an experimental study with virtual reality. Front Aging Neurosci 7: 88. (2015).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2015.00088] [PMID: 26042034]
[29]
Sirály E, Szabó Á, Szita B, et al. Monitoring the early signs of cognitive decline in elderly by computer games: an MRI study. PLoS One 10(2)e0117918 (2015).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117918] [PMID: 25706380]
[30]
Tippett WJ, Lee JH, Zakzanis KK, Black SE, Mraz R, Graham SJ. Visually navigating a virtual world with real-world impairments: a study of visually and spatially guided performance in individuals with mild cognitive impairments. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 31(4): 447-54. (2009).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13803390802251360] [PMID: 18686114]
[31]
Weniger G, Ruhleder M, Lange C, Wolf S, Irle E. Egocentric and allocentric memory as assessed by virtual reality in individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Neuropsychologia 49(3): 518-27. (2011).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2010.12.031] [PMID: 21185847]
[32]
Howett D, Castegnaro A, Krzywicka K, et al. Differentiation of mild cognitive impairment using an entorhinal cortex-based test of virtual reality navigation. Brain 142(6): 1751-66. (2019).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awz116] [PMID: 31121601]
[33]
Werner P, Rabinowitz S, Klinger E, Korczyn AD, Josman N. Use of the virtual action planning supermarket for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment: a preliminary study. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 27(4): 301-9. (2009).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000204915] [PMID: 19252401]
[34]
Eraslan Boz H, Limoncu H, Zygouris S, et al. A new tool to assess amnestic mild cognitive impairment in Turkish older adults: virtual supermarket (VSM). Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn 1-15. (2019).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13825585.2019.1663146] [PMID: 31482749]
[35]
Valladares-Rodriguez S, Fernández-Iglesias MJ, Anido-Rifón L, Facal D, Pérez-Rodríguez R. Episodix: a serious game to detect cognitive impairment in senior adults. A psychometric study. PeerJ 6e5478 (2018a).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.5478] [PMID: 30202646]
[36]
Plancher G, Tirard A, Gyselinck V, Nicolas S, Piolino P. Using virtual reality to characterize episodic memory profiles in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease: influence of active and passive encoding. Neuropsychologia 50(5): 592-602. (2012).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2011.12.013] [PMID: 22261400]
[37]
Nolin P, Banville F, Cloutier J, Allain P. Virtual reality as a new approach to assess cognitive decline in the elderly. Acad J Interdisciplin Stu 2(8): 612-6. (2013).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5901/ajis.2013.v2n8p612]
[38]
Tarnanas I, Laskaris N, Tsolaki M. On the comparison of VR-responses, as performance measures in prospective memory, with auditory P300 responses in MCI detection. Stud Health Technol Inform 181: 156-61. (2012).
[PMID: 22954847]
[39]
Valladares-Rodriguez S, Pérez-Rodriguez R, Fernandez-Iglesias JM, Anido-Rifón LE, Facal D, Rivas-Costa C. Learning to detect cognitive impairment through digital games and machine learning techniques. Methods Inf Med 57(4): 197-207. (2018b).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3414/ME17-02-0011] [PMID: 30248709]
[40]
Laczó J, Andel R, Vyhnalek M, et al. From Morris Water Maze to computer tests in the prediction of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurodegener Dis 10(1-4): 153-7. (2012).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000333121] [PMID: 22205134]
[41]
Laczó J, Andel R, Vyhnalek M, et al. APOE and spatial navigation in amnestic MCI: results from a computer-based test. Neuropsychology 28(5): 676-84. (2014).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/neu0000072] [PMID: 24749727]
[42]
Nedelska Z, Andel R, Laczó J, et al. Spatial navigation impairment is proportional to right hippocampal volume. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109(7): 2590-4. (2012).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1121588109] [PMID: 22308496]
[43]
Tarnanas I, Tsolaki M, Nef T, M Müri R, Mosimann UP. Can a novel computerized cognitive screening test provide additional information for early detection of Alzheimer’s disease? Alzheimers Dement 10(6): 790-8. (2014).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2014.01.002] [PMID: 24656838]
[44]
Manera V, Petit PD, Derreumaux A, et al. ‘Kitchen and cooking,’ a serious game for mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease: a pilot study. Front Aging Neurosci 7: 24. (2015).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2015.00024] [PMID: 25852542]
[45]
Ruggiero G, Iachini T. Editorial: spatial cognition in normal aging, MCI and AD. Curr Alzheimer Res 15(3): 202-4. (2018).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/156720501503180123100912] [PMID: 29453939]
[46]
Braak H, Braak E. Neuropathological stageing of Alzheimer-related changes. Acta Neuropathol 82(4): 239-59. (1991).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00308809] [PMID: 1759558]
[47]
Yang J, Pan P, Song W, et al. Voxelwise meta-analysis of gray matter anomalies in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment using anatomic likelihood estimation. J Neurol Sci 316(1-2): 21-9. (2012).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2012.02.010] [PMID: 22385679]
[48]
Martinez-Torteya A, Gomez-Rueda H, Trevino V, Farber J, Tamez-Peña J. For the Alzheimer’s disease neuroimaging initiative. identification and temporal characterization of features associated with the conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer’s disease. Curr Alzheimer Res 15(8): 751-63. (2018).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1567205015666180202095616] [PMID: 29422002]
[49]
Becker JT, Walker JA, Olton DS. Neuroanatomical bases of spatial memory. Brain Res 200(2): 307-20. (1980).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(80)90922-1] [PMID: 7417818]
[50]
Burgess N, Maguire EA, O’Keefe J. The human hippocampus and spatial and episodic memory. Neuron 35(4): 625-4. (2002).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0896-6273(02)00830-9] [PMID: 12194864]
[51]
Devan BD, Goad EH, Petri HL. Dissociation of hippocampal and striatal contributions to spatial navigation in the water maze. Neurobiol Learn Mem 66(3): 305-23. (1996).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/nlme.1996.0072] [PMID: 8946424]
[52]
Hodges JR. Alzheimer’s centennial legacy: origins, landmarks and the current status of knowledge concerning cognitive aspects. Brain 129(Pt 11): 2811-22. (2006).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awl275] [PMID: 17071920]
[53]
Kirova AM, Bays RB, Lagalwar S. Working memory and executive function decline across normal aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer’s disease. BioMed Res Int 2015748212 (2015).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/748212] [PMID: 26550575]
[54]
Traykov L, Raoux N, Latour F, et al. Executive functions deficit in mild cognitive impairment. Cogn Behav Neurol 20(4): 219-24. (2007).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNN.0b013e31815e6254] [PMID: 18091070]
[55]
Jiang Z, Yang H, Tang X. Deformation-based statistical shape analysis of the corpus callosum in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. Curr Alzheimer Res 15(12): 1151-60. (2018).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1567205015666180813145935] [PMID: 30101708]
[56]
Galton CJ, Patterson K, Xuereb JH, Hodges JR. Atypical and typical presentations of Alzheimer’s disease: a clinical, neuropsychological, neuroimaging and pathological study of 13 cases. Brain 123(Pt 3): 484-98. (2000).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/123.3.484] [PMID: 10686172]
[57]
Stark CE, Okado Y. Making memories without trying: medial temporal lobe activity associated with incidental memory formation during recognition. J Neurosci 23(17): 6748-53. (2003).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.23-17-06748.2003] [PMID: 12890767]
[58]
Wang WC, Giovanello KS. The role of medial temporal lobe regions in incidental and intentional retrieval of item and relational information in aging. Hippocampus 26(6): 693-9. (2016).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hipo.22578] [PMID: 26928884]
[59]
Spíndola L, Brucki SMD. Prospective memory in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment. Dement Neuropsychol 5(2): 64-8. (2011).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1980-57642011DN05020002] [PMID: 29213725]
[60]
Kliegel M, McDaniel MA, Einstein GO. Plan formation, retention, and execution in prospective memory: a new approach and age-related effects. Mem Cognit 28(6): 1041-9. (2000).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BF03209352] [PMID: 11105530]
[61]
Costa A, Perri R, Serra L, et al. Prospective memory functioning in mild cognitive impairment. Neuropsychology 24(3): 327-35. (2010).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0018015] [PMID: 20438210]
[62]
Kim H, Park JY, Kim KK. Spatial learning and memory using a radial arm maze with a head-mounted display. Psychiatry Investig 15(10): 935-44. (2018).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.30773/pi.2018.06.28.3] [PMID: 30301309]
[63]
Keshavarz B, Riecke BE, Hettinger LJ, Campos JL. Vection and visually induced motion sickness: how are they related? Front Psychol 6: 472. (2015).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00472] [PMID: 25941509]
[64]
Bohil CJ, Alicea B, Biocca FA. Virtual reality in neuroscience research and therapy. Nat Rev Neurosci 12(12): 752-62. (2011).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrn3122] [PMID: 22048061]
[65]
Diersch N, Wolbers T. The potential of virtual reality for spatial navigation research across the adult lifespan. J Exp Biol 222(Pt Suppl 1): (2019).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.187252]
[66]
Besnard J, Richard P, Banville F, et al. Virtual reality and neuropsychological assessment: The reliability of a virtual kitchen to assess daily-life activities in victims of traumatic brain injury. Appl Neuropsychol Adult 23(3): 223-35. (2016).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23279095.2015.1048514] [PMID: 26569498]
[67]
Zucchella C, Sinforiani E, Tassorelli C, et al. Serious games for screening pre-dementia conditions: from virtuality to reality? A pilot project. Funct Neurol 29(3): 153-8. (2014).
[PMID: 25473734]
[68]
Jekel K, Damian M, Wattmo C, et al. Mild cognitive impairment and deficits in instrumental activities of daily living: a systematic review. Alzheimers Res Ther 7(1): 17. (2015).
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13195-015-0099-0] [PMID: 25815063]


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 17
ISSUE: 2
Year: 2020
Page: [126 - 140]
Pages: 15
DOI: 10.2174/1567205017666200317100421
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 10