Cancer of the prostate are cancers in which most incidences are slow-growing, and in the
U.S., a record of 1.2 million new cases of prostate cancer occurred in 2018. The rates of this type of cancer
have been increasing in developing nations. The risk factors for prostate cancer include age, family
history, and obesity. It is believed that the rate of prostate cancer is correlated with the Western diet.
Various advances in methods of radiotherapy have contributed to lowering morbidity. Therapy for hormone-
refractory prostate cancer is making progress, for almost all men with metastases will proceed to
hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Smoking cigarettes along with the presence of prostate cancer has
been shown to cause a higher risk of mortality in prostate cancer. The serious outcome of incontinence
and erectile dysfunction result from the cancer treatment of surgery and radiation, particularly for prostate-
specific antigen detected cancers that will not cause morbidity or mortality. Families of patients, as
well as patients, are profoundly affected following the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Poor communication
between spouses during prostate cancer increases the risk for poor adjustment to prostate cancer. The
use of serum prostate-specific antigen to screen for prostate cancer has led to a greater detection, in its
early stage, of this cancer. Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in American men, accounting
for more than 29% of all diagnosed cancers and about 13% of all cancer deaths. A shortened course
of hormonal therapy with docetaxel following radical prostatectomy (or radiation therapy) for high-risk
prostate cancer has been shown to be both safe and feasible. Patients treated with docetaxel-estramustine
had a prostate-specific antigen response decline of at least 50%. Cancer vaccines are an immune-based
cancer treatment that may provide the promise of a non-toxic but efficacious therapeutic alternative for
cancer patients. Further studies will elucidate improved methods of detection and treatment.
Keywords: Prostate cancer, Vaccines, Hormone-refractory, Radiation therapy, Erectile dysfunction, Mortality.
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