Titanium (Ti) and its alloys are potential metal materials in dental and orthopedic applications, due to excellent comprehensive mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Despite this, revision surgery is painful for millions of patients and may cause secondary injury. Nowadays, it is time to solve the tricky problem. Compared with the clinically used antibiotics, novel biomaterials displayed powerful application potential due to their stronger antibacterial activity, less drug resistance and excellent biocompatibility. Antibacterial ions have a crucial effect, especially for nanostructured metal. The review mainly aims at the antibacterial function and osteogenic properties about surface modification based on Ag ions, Zn ions, Cu ions and other nonmetallic ions. The first part of the present review briefly described the problem of the bacterial infection of Ti implants. Then the methods of surface modification were detailed introduced. At last, other strategies, which were used to improve antibacterial and osteogenic properties were mentioned. Although anti-infective research is fruitful, there are some problems to be solved between mentioned and clinically implemented strategies. It is urgent to transform study into clinical application.
Keywords: Titanium alloys, Ag /Zn/Cu ions, bioactive coatings, antibacterial activity, osteogenic properties, synthesis methods
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