Osteosarcoma is an aggressive bone cancer found in children and adolescents. The surgical removal of tumour and chemotherapy combined treatment for osteosarcoma has been widely accepted approach. However, the drug resistance developed by tumour cells resulted in recurrence of cancer. It is imperative to understand the molecular mechanism involved in the development of drug resistance and tumour progression for developing potential therapy. Tumour microenvironment and cellular cross talk via activation of various signalling pathways are responsible for tumour progression and metastasis. The comprehend reviews already available on the tumour microenvironment, signalling cascades responsible in tumour progression, and cellular crosstalk between malignant cells and immune cells. We intend to review on postulating the importance of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in osteosarcoma progression and metastasis. This paper orchestrated to provide information sequentially: tumour microenvironment, MSCs role in osteosarcoma progression, hypoxic environment in MSCs recruitment at the tumour site and importance of exosomes in tumorigenesis, progression and metastasis. Overall, this review highlights may enlighten the research towards the MSCs and MSCs derived exosome role in osteosarcoma progression and drug resistance. This possibly may result in developing novel therapeutic approaches to combat the osteosarcoma effectively and improved prognosis tools for early diagnosis.
Keywords: Osteosarcoma, Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), Tumour, Exosome, bone cancer, drug resistance
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