In the rapidly evolving field of nanotechnology, plant virus nanoparticles (pVNPs) are
emerging as powerful tools in diverse applications ranging from biomedicine to materials science. The
proteinaceous structure of plant viruses allows the capsid structure to be modified by genetic engineering
and/or chemical conjugation with nanoscale precision. This means that pVNPs can be engineered
to display peptides and proteins on their external surface, including immunodominant peptides derived
from pathogens allowing pVNPs to be used for active immunization. In this context, pVNPs are safer
than VNPs derived from mammalian viruses because there is no risk of infection or reversion to pathogenicity.
Furthermore, pVNPs can be produced rapidly and inexpensively in natural host plants or
heterologous production platforms.
In this review, we discuss the use of pVNPs for the delivery of peptide antigens to the host immune in
pre-clinical studies with the final aim of promoting systemic immunity against the corresponding
pathogens. Furthermore, we described the versatility of plant viruses, with innate immunostimulatory
properties, in providing a huge natural resource of carriers that can be used to develop the next generation
of sustainable vaccines.