The Emerging of CRF01_AE: A Clinical Story and Future HIV/AIDS Situation in Thailand

Author(s): Poramed Winichakoon, Siripong Tongjai*.

Journal Name: Current HIV Research

Volume 18 , Issue 2 , 2020

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

The HIV epidemic in Thailand in the 1980’s compromised the country’s socio-economic development. The epidemic first became evident in the community of men with male sexual partners (MSM), and subsequently spread to intravenous drug users (IVDU), female commercial sex workers (CSW) and their male clients, and, ultimately, to their partners and children. The HIV epidemic has devastated the country’s working-age population. The extensive negative impact and social stigma associated with the disease do not only have an impact on the victims of HIV but also on their descendants and relatives. An epicenter of the HIV epidemic has been in the northern provinces of Thailand. An HIV-1 subtype CRF01_AE, a complex chimeric virus composed of both A and E subtypes, is prevalent in Northern Thailand. The virus has quickly become a predominant viral strain circulating in Thailand, other neighboring Southeast Asian countries, and China as well as some other countries throughout the world. The epidemiology, evolution, and biology of CRF01_AE offer a unique model for further scientific investigations which would advance the knowledge of and curative strategies against HIV. In addition, Thailand has developed suitable national guidelines on HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention in order to control the epidemic. Effective antiretroviral drugs are, therefore, able to be made available to those who live with HIV. The national surveillance system has also been effective. The great efforts and resources which Thailand has dedicated to the fight against the epidemic have eventually paid off. In 2010, a plan was proposed to eliminate mother-to-child HIV transmission and Thailand has become the first country to be effective in this objective. Thailand therefore has become recognized as being the global leader in HIV prevention and treatment. The experience which Thailand has gained from the past and the current research and management strategies of the HIV epidemic has prepared the country for emerging strains of HIV-1 in the future.

Keywords: HIV, AIDS, MSM, CRF01_AE, research, CSW.

[1]
Anderson J. AIDS in Thailand. BMJ 1990; 300(6722): 415-6.
[PMID: 2107891]
[2]
Weniger BG, Limpakarnjanarat K, Ungchusak K, et al. The epidemiology of HIV infection and AIDS in Thailand. AIDS 1991; 5(Suppl. 2): S71-85.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00002030-199101001-00011] [PMID: 1845063]
[3]
Vithayasai P, Vithayasai V. Atlas of HIV infection. Support the Children Foundation 1994.
[4]
A model for HIV-AIDS clinical research in a developing country. Thailand: The Netherlands Australia Thailand Research Collaboration, Bangkok 2000.
[5]
Porapakkham Y, Pramarnpol S, Athibhoddhi S, Bernhard R. The Evolution of HIV/AIDS Policy in Thailand, 1984-1994. ASEAN Institute for Health Development, Mahidol University 1995.
[6]
Shivakumar J. Thailand’s Response to AIDS: Building on Success, Confronting the Future. World Bank Thailand Office in Bangkok 2000.
[7]
Phanuphak N, Phanuphak P. History of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Thailand. J Virus Erad 2016; 2(2): 107-9.
[PMID: 27482444]
[8]
Siraprapasiri T, Ongwangdee S, Benjarattanaporn P, Peerapatanapokin W, Sharma M. The impact of Thailand’s public health response to the HIV epidemic 1984-2015: understanding the ingredients of success. J Virus Erad 2016; 2(Suppl. 4): 7-14.
[PMID: 28275444]
[9]
Celentano DD, Hodge MJ, Razak MH, et al. HIV-1 incidence among opiate users in northern Thailand. Am J Epidemiol 1999; 149(6): 558-64.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a009852] [PMID: 10084245]
[10]
Beyrer C, Artenstein AW, Rugpao S, et al. Epidemiologic and biologic characterization of a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 highly exposed, persistently seronegative female sex workers in northern Thailand. J Infect Dis 1999; 179(1): 59-67.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/314556] [PMID: 9841823]
[11]
United Nations Development Programme. Building strength on strength: Lessons from community responses to HIV in northern Thailand 2007.
[12]
Smith DG. Thailand: AIDS crisis looms. Lancet 1990; 335(8692): 781-2.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0140-6736(90)90883-7] [PMID: 1969521]
[13]
Vithayasai V, Vithayasai P. HIV infection in clinical practice. Support the Children Foundation 1992.
[14]
Thanprasertsuk S, Lertpiriyasuwat C, Leusaree T, et al. HIV/AIDS care and treatment in three provinces in northern Thailand before the national scale-up of highly-active antiretroviral therapy. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2006; 37(1): 83-9.
[PMID: 16771217]
[15]
UNAIDS DATA 2019 (The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. UNAIDS 2019.
[16]
Rolland-Guillard L, de La Rochebrochard E, Sirirungsi W, Kanabkaew C, Breton D, Le Coeur S. Reproductive health, social life and plans for the future of adolescents growing-up with HIV: a case-control study in Thailand. AIDS Care 2019; 31(1): 90-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2018.1516281] [PMID: 30173557]
[17]
Thai AIDS Society. National Guidelines on HIV/AIDS Treatment and Prevention. Ministry of Public Health, Thailand 2010.
[18]
Thai AIDS Society. Thailand National Guidelines on HIV/AIDS Treatment and Prevention. Ministry of Public Health, Thailand 2017.
[19]
Wirachsilp P, Sutthent R, Wasi C. New Circulating Recombinant Forms of HIV-1 in Thailand. Thai J Hematol Transfus Med 2007; 17: 169-79.
[20]
Myers G, Korber B, Berzofsky JA, Pavlakis GN, Smith RF. Human Retroviruses and AIDS, 1992 A compilation and analysis of nucleic acid and amino acid sequences Japanese Society of Biofeedback Research. NM, United States: Los Alamos National Lab 1992.
[21]
Korber B, Foley B, Leitner T. Human retroviruses and AIDS 1997. NM, United States: Los Alamos National Lab 1997.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2172/607510]
[22]
Nelson KE, Rungruengthanakit K, Margolick J, et al. High rates of transmission of subtype E human immunodeficiency virus type 1 among heterosexual couples in Northern Thailand: role of sexually transmitted diseases and immune compromise. J Infect Dis 1999; 180(2): 337-43.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/314882] [PMID: 10395847]
[23]
Ou CY, Takebe Y, Luo CC, et al. Wide distribution of two subtypes of HIV-1 in Thailand. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1992; 8(8): 1471-2.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/aid.1992.8.1471] [PMID: 1466984]
[24]
McCutchan FE, Hegerich PA, Brennan TP, et al. Genetic variants of HIV-1 in Thailand. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1992; 8(11): 1887-95.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/aid.1992.8.1887] [PMID: 1489577]
[25]
Carr JK, Salminen MO, Koch C, et al. Full-length sequence and mosaic structure of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolate from Thailand. J Virol 1996; 70(9): 5935-43.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.70.9.5935-5943.1996] [PMID: 8709215]
[26]
Ruxrungtham K, Phanuphak P. Update on HIV/AIDS in Thailand. J Med Assoc Thai 2001; 84(Suppl. 1): S1-S17.
[PMID: 11529320]
[27]
Costello C, Nelson KE, Suriyanon V, et al. HIV-1 subtype E progression among northern Thai couples: traditional and non-traditional predictors of survival. Int J Epidemiol 2005; 34(3): 577-84.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyi023] [PMID: 15737969]
[28]
Rangsin R, Piyaraj P, Sirisanthana T, Sirisopana N, Short O, Nelson KE. The natural history of HIV-1 subtype E infection in young men in Thailand with up to 14 years of follow-up. AIDS 2007; 21(Suppl. 6): S39-46.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.aids.0000299409.29528.23] [PMID: 18032937]
[29]
Tovanabutra S, Beyrer C, Sakkhachornphop S, et al. The changing molecular epidemiology of HIV type 1 among northern Thai drug users, 1999 to 2002. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2004; 20(5): 465-75.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/088922204323087705] [PMID: 15186520]
[30]
Srisuphanunt M, Sukeepaisarnchareon W, Kucherer C, Pauli G. The epidemiology of HIV-1 subtypes in infected patients from northeastern Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2004; 35(3): 641-8.
[PMID: 15689081]
[31]
Ananworanich J, Phanuphak N, de Souza M, et al. South East Asia Research Collaboration with Hawaii 004 Protocol Team. Incidence and characterization of acute HIV-1 infection in a high-risk Thai population. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2008; 49(2): 151-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0b013e318183a96d] [PMID: 18769355]
[32]
Ng KT, Ng KY, Khong WX, et al. Phylodynamic profile of HIV-1 subtype B, CRF01_AE and the recently emerging CRF51_01B among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Singapore. PLoS One 2013; 8(12): e80884
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080884] [PMID: 24312505]
[33]
Leelawiwat W, Rutvisuttinunt W, Arroyo M, et al. Increasing HIV-1 Molecular Complexity among MSM in Bangkok. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2015; 31(4): 393-400.
[34]
Lee VC, Sullivan PS, Baral SD. Global travel and HIV/STI epidemics among MSM: what does the future hold? Sex Health 2017; 14(1): 51-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/SH16099] [PMID: 28055822]
[35]
Phanuphak N, Pattanachaiwit S, Pankam T, et al. Thai MSM/TG Test and Treat Study Group. Sexually transmitted infections and HIV RNA levels in blood and anogenital compartments among Thai men who have sex with men before and after antiretroviral therapy: implication for Treatment as Prevention programme. J Int AIDS Soc 2018; 21(9): e25186
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jia2.25186] [PMID: 30225927]
[36]
Leelawiwat W, Pattanasin S, Sriporn A, et al. Association between HIV genotype, viral load and disease progression in a cohort of Thai men who have sex with men with estimated dates of HIV infection. PLoS One 2018; 13(7): e0201386
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0201386] [PMID: 30063722]
[37]
McCutchan FE. Global epidemiology of HIV. J Med Virol 2006; 78(Suppl. 1): S7-S12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.20599] [PMID: 16622870]
[38]
Ng OT, Lin L, Laeyendecker O, et al. Increased rate of CD4+ T-cell decline and faster time to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1 subtype CRF01_AE infected seroconverters in Singapore. PLoS One 2011; 6(1): e15738
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015738] [PMID: 21298051]
[39]
Angelis K, Albert J, Mamais I, et al. Global dispersal pattern of HIV type 1 subtype CRF01-AE: A genetic trace of human mobility related to heterosexual sexual activities centralized in southeast Asia. J Infect Dis 2015; 211(11): 1735-44.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiu666] [PMID: 25512631]
[40]
Chu M, Zhang W, Zhang X, et al. HIV-1 CRF01_AE strain is associated with faster HIV/AIDS progression in Jiangsu Province, China. Sci Rep 2017; 7(1): 1570.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-01858-2] [PMID: 28484257]
[41]
Jenkins RA, et al. HIV risk behavior patterns among young Thai men. AIDS Behav 1999; 3: 335-46.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1025441519185]
[42]
Yu XF, Wang Z, Beyrer C, et al. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from patients with AIDS in northern Thailand. J Virol 1995; 69(8): 4649-55.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.69.8.4649-4655.1995] [PMID: 7609029]
[43]
Gao F, Robertson DL, Morrison SG, et al. The heterosexual human immunodeficiency virus type 1 epidemic in Thailand is caused by an intersubtype (A/E) recombinant of African origin. J Virol 1996; 70(10): 7013-29.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.70.10.7013-7029.1996] [PMID: 8794346]
[44]
Hu DJ, Vanichseni S, Mastro TD, et al. Viral load differences in early infection with two HIV-1 subtypes. AIDS 2001; 15(6): 683-91.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00002030-200104130-00003] [PMID: 11371682]
[45]
Nelson KE, Costello C, Suriyanon V, Sennun S, Duerr A. Survival of blood donors and their spouses with HIV-1 subtype E (CRF01 A_E) infection in northern Thailand, 1992-2007. AIDS 2007; 21(Suppl. 6): S47-54.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.aids.0000299410.37152.17] [PMID: 18032938]
[46]
Connor RI, Sheridan KE, Ceradini D, Choe S, Landau NR. Change in coreceptor use correlates with disease progression in HIV-1--infected individuals. J Exp Med 1997; 185(4): 621-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.185.4.621] [PMID: 9034141]
[47]
Regoes RR, Bonhoeffer S. The HIV coreceptor switch: a population dynamical perspective. Trends Microbiol 2005; 13(6): 269-77.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2005.04.005] [PMID: 15936659]
[48]
Shen HS, Yin J, Leng F, et al. HIV coreceptor tropism determination and mutational pattern identification. Sci Rep 2016; 6: 21280.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep21280] [PMID: 26883082]
[49]
Chalmet K, Dauwe K, Foquet L, et al. Presence of CXCR4-using HIV-1 in patients with recently diagnosed infection: correlates and evidence for transmission. J Infect Dis 2012; 205(2): 174-84.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jir714] [PMID: 22147802]
[50]
Phuphuakrat A, Phawattanakul S, Pasomsub E, Kiertiburanakul S, Chantratita W, Sungkanuparph S. Coreceptor tropism determined by genotypic assay in HIV-1 circulating in Thailand, where CRF01_AE predominates. HIV Med 2014; 15(5): 269-75.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hiv.12108] [PMID: 24215399]
[51]
Delobel P, Sandres-Sauné K, Cazabat M, et al. R5 to X4 switch of the predominant HIV-1 population in cellular reservoirs during effective highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2005; 38(4): 382-92.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.qai.0000152835.17747.47] [PMID: 15764954]
[52]
Samleerat T, Hongjaisee S, Phiayura P, Sirirungsi W. HIV-1 coreceptor usage in perinatally infected Thai children. J Med Virol 2017; 89(8): 1412-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.24790] [PMID: 28198557]
[53]
Ng KY, Chew KK, Kaur P, et al. High prevalence of CXCR4 usage among treatment-naive CRF01_AE and CRF51_01B-infected HIV-1 subjects in Singapore. BMC Infect Dis 2013; 13: 90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-13-90] [PMID: 23421710]
[54]
Luu QP, Dean J, Do TT, et al. HIV type 1 coreceptor tropism, CCR5 genotype, and integrase inhibitor resistance profiles in Vietnam: implications for the introduction of new antiretroviral regimens. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2012; 28(10): 1344-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/aid.2011.0396] [PMID: 22264071]
[55]
Zhang C, Xu S, Wei J, Guo H. Predicted co-receptor tropism and sequence characteristics of China HIV-1 V3 loops: implications for the future usage of CCR5 antagonists and AIDS vaccine development. Int J Infect Dis 2009; 13(5): e212-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2008.12.010] [PMID: 19217335]
[56]
Song H, Ou W, Feng Y, et al. Disparate impact on CD4 T cell count by two distinct HIV-1 phylogenetic clusters from the same clade. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2019; 116(1): 239-44.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1814714116] [PMID: 30559208]
[57]
Rücker E, Grivel J-C, Münch J, Kirchhoff F, Margolis L. Vpr and Vpu are important for efficient human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication and CD4+ T-cell depletion in human lymphoid tissue ex vivo. J Virol 2004; 78(22): 12689-93.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.78.22.12689-12693.2004] [PMID: 15507658]
[58]
González ME. Vpu protein: The viroporin encoded by HIV-1. Viruses 2015; 7(8): 4352-68.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v7082824] [PMID: 26247957]
[59]
Komoto S, Tsuji S, Ibrahim MS, et al. The vpu protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 plays a protective role against virus-induced apoptosis in primary CD4(+) T lymphocytes. J Virol 2003; 77(19): 10304-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.77.19.10304-10313.2003] [PMID: 12970415]
[60]
Komoto S, Tsuji S, Lee BJ, et al. Higher frequency of premature stop codon mutations at vpu gene of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 CRF01_AE compared with those of other subtypes. Microbes Infect 2005; 7(2): 139-47.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micinf.2004.09.017] [PMID: 15715990]
[61]
Gummuluru S, Kinsey CM, Emerman M. An in vitro rapid-turnover assay for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication selects for cell-to-cell spread of virus. J Virol 2000; 74(23): 10882-91.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.74.23.10882-10891.2000] [PMID: 11069982]
[62]
Black LR, Aiken C. TRIM5alpha disrupts the structure of assembled HIV-1 capsid complexes in vitro. J Virol 2010; 84(13): 6564-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00210-10] [PMID: 20410272]
[63]
Fribourgh JL, Nguyen HC, Matreyek KA, et al. Structural insight into HIV-1 restriction by MxB. Cell Host Microbe 2014; 16(5): 627-38.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2014.09.021] [PMID: 25312384]
[64]
Nakayama EE, Saito A, Sultana T, et al. Naturally occurring mutations in HIV-1 CRF01_AE capsid affect viral sensitivity to restriction factors. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018; 34(4): 382-92.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/aid.2017.0212] [PMID: 29325426]
[65]
Stopak K, de Noronha C, Yonemoto W, Greene WC. HIV-1 Vif blocks the antiviral activity of APOBEC3G by impairing both its translation and intracellular stability. Mol Cell 2003; 12(3): 591-601.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1097-2765(03)00353-8] [PMID: 14527406]
[66]
Goncalves J, Santa-Marta M. HIV-1 Vif and APOBEC3G: multiple roads to one goal. Retrovirology 2004; 1: 28.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1742-4690-1-28] [PMID: 15383144]
[67]
Harris RS, Dudley JP. APOBECs and virus restriction. Virology 2015; 479-480: 131-45.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2015.03.012] [PMID: 25818029]
[68]
Iwabu Y, Kinomoto M, Tatsumi M, et al. Differential anti-APOBEC3G activity of HIV-1 Vif proteins derived from different subtypes. J Biol Chem 2010; 285(46): 35350-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M110.173286] [PMID: 20833716]
[69]
Binka M, Ooms M, Steward M, Simon V. The activity spectrum of Vif from multiple HIV-1 subtypes against APOBEC3G, APOBEC3F, and APOBEC3H. J Virol 2012; 86(1): 49-59.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.06082-11] [PMID: 22013041]
[70]
Lisovsky I, Schader SM, Sloan RD, et al. HIV-1 subtype variability in Vif derived from molecular clones affects APOBEC3G-mediated host restriction. Intervirology 2013; 56(4): 258-64.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000348513] [PMID: 23689841]
[71]
Yebra G, Holguín A. Mutation Vif-22H, which allows HIV-1 to use the APOBEC3G hypermutation to develop resistance, could appear more quickly in certain non-B variants. J Antimicrob Chemother 2011; 66(4): 941-2.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkr012] [PMID: 21393191]
[72]
Sadler HA, Stenglein MD, Harris RS, Mansky LM. APOBEC3G contributes to HIV-1 variation through sublethal mutagenesis. J Virol 2010; 84(14): 7396-404.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00056-10] [PMID: 20463080]
[73]
Boonchawalit S, Jullaksorn D, Uttiyoung J, et al. Molecular evolution of HIV-1 CRF01_AE Env in Thai patients. PLoS One 2011; 6(11): e27098
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027098] [PMID: 22073263]
[74]
Bunupuradah T, Imahashi M, Iampornsin T, et al. Association of APOBEC3G genotypes and CD4 decline in Thai and Cambodian HIV-infected children with moderate immune deficiency. AIDS Res Ther 2012; 9(1): 34.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1742-6405-9-34] [PMID: 23181827]
[75]
Bunupuradah T, et al. APOBEC3G genotypes and proviral DNA hypermutations on HIV/AIDS disease progression in Thai and Cambodian children. Future Virol 2015; 10(12)
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fvl.15.101]
[76]
Khienprasit N, Chaiwarith R, Sirisanthana T, Supparatpinyo K. Incidence and risk factors of antiretroviral treatment failure in treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients at Chiang Mai University Hospital, Thailand. AIDS Res Ther 2011; 8(1): 42.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1742-6405-8-42] [PMID: 22060823]
[77]
Lessells RJ, Katzenstein DK, de Oliveira T. Are subtype differences important in HIV drug resistance? Curr Opin Virol 2012; 2(5): 636-43.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coviro.2012.08.006] [PMID: 23006584]
[78]
Kiertiburanakul S, Pinsai S, Chantratita W, et al. Prevalence of primary HIV drug resistance in Thailand detected by short reverse transcriptase genotypic resistance assay. PLoS One 2016; 11(2): e0147945
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147945] [PMID: 26828876]
[79]
Iemwimangsa N, Pasomsub E, Sukasem C, Chantratita W. Surveillance of HIV-1 drug-resistance mutations in Thailand from 1999 to 2014. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2017; 48(2): 271-81.
[PMID: 29641878]
[80]
Thanprasertsuk S, Phokhasawad K, Teeraratkul A, et al. HIV drug resistance among pre-treatment cases in thailand: four rounds of surveys during 2006-2013. Outbreak Surveill Investig Rep 2018; 11(1): 6-13.
[PMID: 30847451]
[81]
Kiertiburanakul S, Chaiwarith R, Sirivichayakul S, et al. Comparisons of Primary HIV-1 Drug Resistance between Recent and Chronic HIV-1 Infection within a Sub-Regional Cohort of Asian Patients. PLoS One 2013; 8(6): e62057
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062057] [PMID: 23826076]
[82]
Manosuthi W, Butler DM, Pérez-Santiago J, et al. Protease polymorphisms in HIV-1 subtype CRF01_AE represent selection by antiretroviral therapy and host immune pressure. AIDS 2010; 24(3): 411-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283350eef] [PMID: 20009919]
[83]
Schader SM, Colby-Germinario SP, Quashie PK, et al. HIV gp120 H375 is unique to HIV-1 subtype CRF01_AE and confers strong resistance to the entry inhibitor BMS-599793, a candidate microbicide drug. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2012; 56(8): 4257-67.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00639-12] [PMID: 22615295]
[84]
Jost S, Bernard MC, Kaiser L, et al. A patient with HIV-1 superinfection. N Engl J Med 2002; 347(10): 731-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa020263] [PMID: 12213944]
[85]
Ramos A, Hu DJ, Nguyen L, et al. Intersubtype human immunodeficiency virus type 1 superinfection following seroconversion to primary infection in two injection drug users. J Virol 2002; 76(15): 7444-52.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.76.15.7444-7452.2002] [PMID: 12097556]
[86]
Redd AD, Quinn TC, Tobian AAR. Frequency and implications of HIV superinfection. Lancet Infect Dis 2013; 13(7): 622-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70066-5] [PMID: 23726798]
[87]
Tovanabutra S, Watanaveeradej V, Viputtikul K, et al. A new circulating recombinant form, CRF15_01B, reinforces the linkage between IDU and heterosexual epidemics in Thailand. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2003; 19(7): 561-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/088922203322230923] [PMID: 12908933]
[88]
Tovanabutra S, Kijak GH, Beyrer C, et al. Identification of CRF34_01B, a second circulating recombinant form unrelated to and more complex than CRF15_01B, among injecting drug users in northern Thailand. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2007; 23(6): 829-33.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/aid.2006.0300] [PMID: 17604547]
[89]
Rutvisuttinunt W, Sirivichayakul S, Oota S, et al. Two unique recombinant forms identified in incident HIV type 1 infections in Thai blood donors. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2012; 28(12): 1703-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/aid.2011.0339] [PMID: 22587412]
[90]
Nikolopoulos GK, Kostaki EG, Paraskevis D. Overview of HIV molecular epidemiology among people who inject drugs in Europe and Asia. Infect Genet Evol 2016; 46: 256-68.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2016.06.017] [PMID: 27287560]
[91]
Rerks-Ngarm S, Pitisuttithum P, Nitayaphan S, et al. Vaccination with ALVAC and AIDSVAX to prevent HIV-1 infection in Thailand. N Engl J Med 2009; 361(23): 2209-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa0908492] [PMID: 19843557]
[92]
VanCott TC, Mascola JR, Loomis-Price LD, et al. Cross-subtype neutralizing antibodies induced in baboons by a subtype E gp120 immunogen based on an R5 primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope. J Virol 1999; 73(6): 4640-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.73.6.4640-4650.1999] [PMID: 10233923]
[93]
Tomaras GD, Haynes BF. Advancing toward HIV-1 vaccine efficacy through the intersections of immune correlates. Vaccines (Basel) 2014; 2(1): 15-35.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines2010015] [PMID: 24932411]
[94]
Zolla-Pazner S, deCamp A, Gilbert PB, et al. Vaccine-induced IgG antibodies to V1V2 regions of multiple HIV-1 subtypes correlate with decreased risk of HIV-1 infection. PLoS One 2014; 9(2): e87572
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087572] [PMID: 24504509]
[95]
Pitisuttithum P, Gilbert P, Gurwith M, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy trial of a bivalent recombinant glycoprotein 120 HIV-1 vaccine among injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand. J Infect Dis 2006; 194(12): 1661-71.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/508748] [PMID: 17109337]
[96]
Kim JH, Excler J-L, Michael NL. Lessons from the RV144 Thai phase III HIV-1 vaccine trial and the search for correlates of protection. Annu Rev Med 2015; 66: 423-37.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-med-052912-123749] [PMID: 25341006]
[97]
Haynes BF, Gilbert PB, McElrath MJ, et al. Immune-correlates analysis of an HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trial. N Engl J Med 2012; 366(14): 1275-86.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1113425] [PMID: 22475592]
[98]
Karasavvas N, Billings E, Rao M, et al. The Thai Phase III HIV Type 1 Vaccine trial (RV144) regimen induces antibodies that target conserved regions within the V2 loop of gp120. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2012; 28(11): 1444-57.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/aid.2012.0103] [PMID: 23035746]
[99]
Rolland M, Edlefsen PT, Larsen BB, et al. Increased HIV-1 vaccine efficacy against viruses with genetic signatures in Env V2. Nature 2012; 490(7420): 417-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature11519] [PMID: 22960785]
[100]
Liao HX, Bonsignori M, Alam SM, et al. Vaccine induction of antibodies against a structurally heterogeneous site of immune pressure within HIV-1 envelope protein variable regions 1 and 2. Immunity 2013; 38(1): 176-86.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2012.11.011] [PMID: 23313589]
[101]
Gottardo R, Bailer RT, Korber BT, et al. Plasma IgG to linear epitopes in the V2 and V3 regions of HIV-1 gp120 correlate with a reduced risk of infection in the RV144 vaccine efficacy trial. PLoS One 2013; 8(9): e75665
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075665] [PMID: 24086607]
[102]
Khamaikawin W, Saoin S, Nangola S, et al. Combined Antiviral Therapy Using Designed Molecular Scaffolds Targeting Two Distinct Viral Functions, HIV-1 Genome Integration and Capsid Assembly. Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 2015; 4: e249
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/mtna.2015.22] [PMID: 26305555]
[103]
Nangola S, Urvoas A, Valerio-Lepiniec M, et al. Antiviral activity of recombinant ankyrin targeted to the capsid domain of HIV-1 Gag polyprotein. Retrovirology 2012; 9: 17.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1742-4690-9-17] [PMID: 22348230]
[104]
Sakkhachornphop S, Hadpech S, Wisitponchai T, et al. Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Activity of an Ankyrin Repeat Protein on Viral Assembly against Chimeric NL4-3 Viruses Carrying Gag/PR Derived from Circulating Strains among Northern Thai Patients. Viruses 2018; 10(11): pii E625
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v10110625] [PMID: 30428529]
[105]
Moonmuang S, Saoin S, Chupradit K, et al. Modulated expression of the HIV-1 2LTR zinc finger efficiently interferes with the HIV integration process. Biosci Rep 2018; 38(5): 1-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20181109] [PMID: 30068696]
[106]
Phanuphak P, Locharernkul C, Panmuong W, Wilde H. A report of three cases of AIDS in Thailand. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol 1985; 3(2): 195-9.
[PMID: 2866780]
[107]
Anderson JP, Rodrigo AG, Learn GH, et al. Testing the hypothesis of a recombinant origin of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype E. J Virol 2000; 74(22): 10752-65.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.74.22.10752-10765.2000] [PMID: 11044120]
[108]
Ruxrungtham K, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome in Asia: An update. Asian Biomed 2016; 10: S3-S14.
[109]
Chang D, Sanders-Buell E, Bose M, et al. Molecular epidemiology of a primarily MSM acute HIV-1 cohort in Bangkok, Thailand and connections within networks of transmission in Asia. J Int AIDS Soc 2018; 21(11): e25204
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jia2.25204] [PMID: 30601598]
[110]
Yin Y, Liu Y, Zhu J, et al. The prevalence, temporal trends, and geographical distribution of HIV-1 subtypes among men who have sex with men in China: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Epidemiol Infect 2019; 147: e83
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268818003400] [PMID: 30869019]
[111]
Tee KK, Kantor R, Sungkanuparph S, et al. TREAT Asia Studies to Evaluate Resistance-Monitoring (TASER-M) Database. Transmission networks of HIV-1 among men who have sex with men in East and Southeast Asia. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2015; 70(1): e28-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000000614] [PMID: 25835606]
[112]
Shao Y, Williamson C. The HIV-1 epidemic: low- to middle-income countries. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2012; 2(3): a007187
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a007187] [PMID: 22393534]
[113]
Berg MG, Yamaguchi J, Alessandri-Gradt E, Tell RW, Plantier JC, Brennan CA. A pan-HIV strategy for complete genome sequencing. J Clin Microbiol 2016; 54(4): 868-82.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.02479-15] [PMID: 26699702]
[114]
Shotelersuk V, Tongsima S, Pithukpakorn M, Eu-Ahsunthornwattana J, Mahasirimongkol S. Precision medicine in Thailand. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2019; 181(2): 245-53.
[PMID: 30888117]
[115]
Tongsima W, Tongsima S, Palittapongarnpim P. Outlook on Thailand’s genomics and computational biology research and development. PLOS Comput Biol 2008; 4(7): e1000115
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000115] [PMID: 18654621]
[116]
Hattirat S, Ngamphiw C, Assawamakin A, Chan J, Tongsima S. Catalog of Genetic Variations (SNPs and CNVs) and Analysis Tools for Thai Genetic Studies. Commun Comput Inf Sci 2010; 115: 130-40.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-16750-8_12]
[117]
Suktitipat B, Naktang C, Mhuantong W, et al. Copy number variation in Thai population. PLoS One 2014; 9(8): e104355
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0104355] [PMID: 25118596]
[118]
An P, Winkler CA. Host genes associated with HIV/AIDS: Advances in gene discovery. Trends Genet 2010; 26(3): 119-31.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tig.2010.01.002] [PMID: 20149939]


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as


Article Details

VOLUME: 18
ISSUE: 2
Year: 2020
Page: [74 - 84]
Pages: 11
DOI: 10.2174/1570162X18666200129160723
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 7