Background: Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles from medicinal plants has become an interesting strategy in biomedical research due to its exclusive properties including less toxic one cellular level through its ecofriendly biological function.
Objective: To examine the anti-lipid accumulation effect of spherical gold nanoparticles (size 10-20 nm) synthesized from Dendropanax morbifera Léveille (D-AuNPs) in both 3T3-L1 and HepG2 cells.
Method: 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and HepG2 hepatocytes were stimulated with cocktail media to generate obese and fatty liver disease models. Cell cytotoxicity and cell proliferation assays were performed in adipocytes at different stages of growth. An anti-lipid accumulation assay was performed in 3T3-L1 obese and HepG2 fatty liver models using different doses of D-AuNPs. Expression of adipogenic genes of PPARγ, CEBPα, Jak2, STAT3, and ap2 and hepatogenic genes PPARα, FAS, and ACC was measured by real time PCR. In addition, protein expression of PPARγ and CEBPα was evaluated by immunoblotting assay.
Result: We found that D-AuNPs (size 10–20 nm) at concentrations up to 100 µg/ml were nontoxic to 3T3-L1 and HepG2 at post-confluent and mature stages. In addition, pretreatment of D-AuNPs at post-confluent stage reduced triglyceride content. In addition, the adipogenesis process was negatively controlled by D-AuNPs, with downregulated PPARγ, CEBPα, Jak2, STAT3, and ap2 expression in 3T3-L1 cells and FAS and ACC levels in HepG2 cells.
Conclusion: These data indicated that D-AuNPs exert antiadipogenic properties. We hypothesize that Dendropanax contain a large amount of phenolic compound that coats the surface of gold nanoparticles and has the ability to reduce the excess amount of lipid in both cell lines. The proposed mechanism of obesity in a 3T3-L1 cell through PPAR-ᵧ transcriptional activation. (1) Upregulation of Jak2 protein activated the Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) mediated with Try750 phosphorylation. And subsequently, PPARᵧ and its co-transcriptional factor CEBPα activates and regulating adipogenic transcriptional genes such as aP2, FAS, SREBP-1. Gold nanoparticles synthesized from Dendropanax morbifera Léveille (D-AuNPS) downregulated the crucial transcriptional factors PPARᵧ and CEBPα as well as downregulated the CEBPβ, Jak2, STAT3, FAS, SREBP-1 and ap2 mRNA expression levels.