Aim: The review paper aims to explore the effect of plant extracts on nanomaterial adsorbent for the removal of toxic metals present in industrial effluents.
Background: Water plays a major role in the sustainability of human life and its existence. Rapid industrialization and urbanization lead to an increase in the pollution and accumulation of hazardous substances which causes the degradation of the aquatic ecosystem. Heavy metals are considered to be a major threat to our environment. Amidst various metals, International Union of Pure applied chemistry (IUPAC) has termed the heavy metal based on their intensity of toxicity and hazardous effects. Nanoparticles, due to its unique properties of particle size that exists in the range of 1-100nm, insights the possibility to introduce the modified chemical groups on their surface as the capping agents, tend to possess the increased surface area, its specified functional groups induce the capability of catalytic reduction reaction and their optical characteristics plays a vital role in the industrial, agricultural and environmental sectors.
Objective: Magnetic nanoparticles incorporated with the enzymes and metallic sites have been widely used both the synthesis of bio valuable products and also in the degradation of many hazardous substances like dyes, phenolic compounds and removal of metal ions present in wastewater.
Methods: Superparamagnetic support nanomaterials (SPIONs) are prepared through Fe, Cu, Ni, Mn and Mg for the distinct and unique characteristic feature of reusability. These metallic nanomaterials are coated with the distinct materials like mesoporous and amorphous silica, polyvinyl alcohol and pyrrolidine, polyethene glycol, polystyrene, chitosan, dextran, starch, gelatin, polystyrene, polyacrylic acid, polymethyl methacrylate to enhance the stability of the particle.
Results: In spite of the different nanomaterial, metal oxide NP's constitutes a significant property of increased stability, magnetic inertness, optical and electrical properties. A potential alternative method in nanotechnology, where the nanomaterials are prepared and used as the biosorbent in the adsorption and removal of heavy metals as well as in the degradation of hazardous dye material. As plant extracts consist of polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids, it plays a significant role as the antimicrobial agents against pathogens. Also, these integrated plant extract with the nanomaterials plays a vital role in the bioremediation process of removing the toxic pollutants from the environment.
Conclusion: The green synthesis of metal/metal oxide nanoparticles using plant extract, due to the ability of polyphenolic components in the integrated system, function as natural reducing agents and has been proposed as a superior alternative to the chemical methods. These surface modified nanocatalyst tends to possess the enhanced stability and specific reactivity in the system and is used in the elimination of organic and inorganic pollutants in the industrial wastewater.