Although the lack of a robust cardiomyocyte proliferative response has been considered to be a crucial determinant of cardiac pathology and Heart Failure in adult mammalians, the emerging picture is that myocardial regeneration is a complex phenotype involving many actors, including acute cellular senescence and inflammation. However, three major and interconnected events occur in response to tissue injury: loss of protein homeostasis, accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria and chronic inflammation. These events blunt the reparative response of the heart, are associated with the accumulation of chronically senescent cells and progressively lead to cardiac dysfunction. Therefore, it is crucial to understand which are the pivotal players of this process, in order to devise strategies aimed at reducing the occurrence of chronic cell senescence in the heart in vivo.
Keywords: Heart Failure, Regeneration, Cell Senescence, Proteostasis, Mitophagy, Inflammation
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