Background: Cervical Cancer (CC) is the most common leading cancer in women globally. This is considered
to be the type of cancer that is restricted to women. Any women in the reproductive age range can develop
CC. However, women between the ages of 25 and 39 are at a higher risk.
Objective: In comparison with developed countries, the screening and awareness of CC in developing countries are
significantly low. Infection with Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of CC, especially HPV-16 and
HPV-18. Other than HPV, there are other factors that can contribute to CC, such as Human simplex virus (HSV)
infection and immunocompromised patients with HIV.
Conclusion: Cervical cancer can be detected by molecular techniques such as (1) PCR, (2) visual acetic acid method,
(3) DNA Hybrid II test, (4) liquid-based cytology, (5) Pap-Smear techniques, and (6) colposcopy techniques. Early
detection of CC is very much needed; cryotherapy or LEEP (Loop electro surgical excision procedure) can be conducted
during the pre-invasive stage of CC. Some metabolic changes in the human body such as fluctuating levels of
insulin and triglycerides and increased activity of adiponectin may lead to CC. These contributing factors, such as
adipokines, can be used as biomarkers for CC detection.