Background: Nanoparticles (NPs) are being used extensively owing to their increased surface area, targeted delivery and enhanced retention. NPs have potential to be used across many disease conditions. Besides widespread use, their toxicity and clinical safety still remain a major concern.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the metabolism and toxicological effects of nanotherapeutics.
Methods: Comprehensive, time-bound literature search was done covering the period from 2010 till date. The primary focus was on the metabolism of NP including their adsorption, degradation, clearance, and bio-persistence. This review also focuses on updated investigations on NPs with respect to their toxic effects on various in vitro and in vivo experimental models.
Results: Nanotechnology is a thriving field of biomedical research and as an efficient drug delivery system. Further their applications are also coming up for diagnosis of disease and as medical devices.
Conclusion: The toxicity of NPs is a major concern in the application of NPs as therapeutics. Studies addressing the metabolism, side-effects and safety of NPs are desirable to gain maximum benefits of nanotherapeutics.