Background: Phytochemicals are obtained from various plants and used for the treatment of diseases as
both traditional and modern medicines. Poor bioavailability of phytochemicals is a major concern in applying phytochemicals
as a therapeutic agent. It is, therefore, necessary to understand the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of
phytochemicals for its implication as a therapeutic agent.
Methods: Articles on the metabolism of phytochemicals from the PubMed database. The articles were classified into
the digestion, absorption, metabolism, excretion, toxicity, and bioavailability of phytochemicals and the effect of gut
microbiota on the metabolism of phytochemicals.
Results: The metabolism of each phytochemical is largely dependent on the individual's digestive ability, membrane
transporters, metabolizing enzymes and gut microbiota. Further, the form of the phytochemical and genetic make-up
of the individual greatly influences the metabolism of phytochemicals.
Conclusion: The metabolism of phytochemicals is mostly depended on the form of phytochemicals and individualspecific
variations in the metabolism of phytochemicals. Understanding the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of
phytochemicals might help in applying plant-based medicines for the treatment of various diseases.