Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are one of the earliest cells found in the bone marrow, and they can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes and even myoblasts, and are therefore considered pluripotent cells. Because of their multipotential differentiation, self-renewal, immunomodulation and other potential, BMSCs have become an important source of seed cells for gene therapy, tissue engineering, cell replacement therapy and regenerative medicine. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is an RNA molecule greater than 200 nucleotides in length that is expressed in a variety of species, including animals, plants, yeast, prokaryotes, and viruses, but lacks an apparent open reading frame, and does not have the function of translating into protein. Many studies have shown that lncRNAs play an important role in osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Here, we describe the role of lncRNAs in the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, in order to provide a new theoretical and experimental basis for bone tissue engineering and clinical treatment.