Background: Neuroblastoma (NB) is the second leading extracranial solid tumors of early childhood and
clinically characterized by the presence of round, small, monomorphic cells with excess nuclear pigmentation (hyperchromasia).
Owing to a lack of definitive treatment against NB and less survival rate in high-risk patients, there is
an urgent requirement to understand molecular mechanisms associated with NB in a better way, which in turn can be
utilized for developing drugs towards the treatment of NB in human.
Objectives: In this review, an approach was adopted to understand major risk factors, pathophysiology, the molecular
mechanism associated with NB, and various therapeutic agents that can serve as drugs towards the treatment of NB
Conclusion: Numerous genetic (e.g., MYCN amplification), perinatal, and gestational factors are responsible for
developing NB. However, no definite environmental or parental exposures responsible for causing NB have been
confirmed to date. Though intensive multimodal treatment approaches, namely, chemotherapy, surgery & radiation,
may help in improving the survival rate in children, these approaches have several side effects and do not work efficiently
in high-risk patients. However, recent studies suggested that numerous phytochemicals, namely, vincristine,
and matrine have a minimal side effect in the human body and may serve as a therapeutic drug during the treatment
of NB. Most of these phytochemicals work in a dose-dependent manner and hence must be prescribed very cautiously.
The information discussed in the present review will be useful in the drug discovery process as well as treatment
and prevention on NB in humans.