Cerebrovascular Diseases (CVD) comprise a wide spectrum of disorders, all sharing an acquired or inherited alteration of the cerebral vasculature. CVD have been associated with important changes in systemic and tissue Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS). The aim of this review was to summarize and to discuss recent findings related to the modulation of RAS components in CVD. The role of RAS axes is more extensively studied in experimentally induced stroke. By means of AT1 receptors in the brain, Ang II hampers cerebral blood flow and causes tissue ischemia, inflammation, oxidative stress, cell damage and apoptosis. On the other hand, Ang-(1-7) by stimulating Mas receptor promotes angiogenesis in brain tissue, decreases oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and improves cognition, cerebral blood flow, neuronal survival, learning and memory. In regard to clinical studies, treatment with Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and AT1 receptor antagonists exerts preventive and therapeutic effects on stroke. Besides stroke, studies support a similar role of RAS molecules also in traumatic brain injury and cerebral aneurysm. The literature supports a beneficial role for the alternative RAS axis in CVD. Further studies are necessary to investigate the therapeutic potential of ACE2 activators and/or Mas receptor agonists in patients with CVD.