Copper and Neurotoxicity in Autism Spectrum Disorder

Author(s): Gesivaldo Santos*, Julita M.P. Borges, Marco Avila-Rodriguez, Silvana B. Gaíno, George E. Barreto, Érika P. Rúbio, Rosane M. Aguiar, Eduardo Galembeck, Cattiúscia B. Bromochenkel, Djalma M. de Oliveira.

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 25 , Issue 45 , 2019

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Abstract:

Free radicals (FR) act on living organisms and present unpaired electrons in the molecular orbitals of oxygen or nitrogen species. They are classified as redox reactions and account for a wide range of processes in biological systems. Genetic and environmental factors may alter the levels of FR in the cell, leading to deleterious consequences such as membrane lipid peroxidation, protein nitration, enzyme, carbohydrate and DNA damage, ultimately resulting in premature aging and a pro-inflammatory microenvironment as observed in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). O2 radical ability to act as a Lewis base and to form a complex with metal transition such as iron and copper (Lewis acids) leads to biomolecules oxidation at physiological pH, thus increasing the possibility of injury and oxidative damage in biological tissues. In this review, we discuss the role of metals, like copper, and the amyloid precursor protein (APP) derivative (s-APP-alpha) as an antioxidant and a possible adjuvant in the treatment of some autistic spectrum disorder symptoms (ASD).

Keywords: Autism, copper, free radicals, amyloid precursor protein, s-APP-alpha, insulin, metabolomics.

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VOLUME: 25
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Year: 2019
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DOI: 10.2174/1381612825666191217091939
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