Background: Recently, deep learning based methods have become an important approach to the accurate analysis of medical images.
Methods: This paper provides a comprehensive survey of the most important deep learning based methods that have been developed for medical image processing. A number of important contributions made in last five years are summarized and surveyed.
Results: Specifically, deep learning based algorithms developed for image segmentation, image classification, registration, object detection and other important problems are reviewed. In addition, an overview of challenges that currently exist in the field and potential directions for future research is provided in the end of the survey.