Iodinated Contrast Media (CM) has a plethora of applications in routine non-invasive or percutaneous
invasive imaging examinations and therapeutic interventions. Unfortunately, the use of CM is not without complications,
with contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) being among the most severe.
CI-AKI is a syndrome defined as a rapid development of renal impairment after a few days of CM endovascular
injection, without the presence of any other underlying related pathologies. Although mostly transient and reversible,
for a subgroup of patients with comorbidities related to renal failure, CI-AKI is directly leading to longer
hospitalization, elevated rates of morbidity and mortality, as well as the increased cost of funding.
Thus, a need for classification in accordance with clinical and peri-procedural criteria is emerged. This would be
very useful for CI-AKI patients in order to predict the ones who would have the greatest advantage from the
application of preventive strategies.
This article provides a practical review of the recent evidence concerning CI-AKI incidence, diagnosis, and sheds
light on prevention methods for reducing contrast use and avoiding AKI during endovascular procedures.
In conclusion, despite the lack of a specific treatment protocol, cautious screening, assessment, identification of
the high-risk patients, and thus the application of simple interventions -concerning modifiable risk factors- can
significantly reduce CI-AKI risk.