Exosomes are nano-sized extracellular vesicles that are released by a variety of cells. Exosomes contain
cargo from cells they derived, including lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. The bilayer lipid membrane structure
of exosomes protects these contents from degradation, allowing them for intercellular communication. The
role of exosomes in fibrotic diseases is increasingly being valued. Exosomes, as carriers of profibrotic signals, are
involved in the development of fibrotic diseases, and also regulate fibrosis by transmitting signals that inhibit
fibrosis or inflammation. Exosomes mobilize and activate a range of effector cells by targeted delivery of bioactive
information. Exosomes can also reflect the condition of cells, tissues and organisms, and thus become potential
biomarkers of fibrotic diseases. Exosomes from bone marrow stem cells support biological signaling that
regulates and inhibits fibrosis and thus initially used in the treatment of fibrotic diseases. This article briefly
summarizes the role of exosomes in the pathogenesis and treatment of fibrotic diseases and raises some issues
that remain to be resolved.
Keywords: Exosomes, fibrosis, hepatic stellate cells, macrophages, epithelials, fibrocite, podocyte, mesenchymal stem cell.
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