Effects of Dietary Polyphenols on Chronic Diseases: Epidemiological Data and Molecular Mechanisms of Action
Pp. 55-94 (40)
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular diseases
(CVD), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DMM), cancers, and chronic respiratory diseases
are usually chronic in nature, and the mortality rate associated with these NCDs is high.
However, epidemiological evidence implies a relationship between dietary polyphenols
and reduced risk of a number of NCDs, and indicated that dietary polyphenols inhibit
NCD-related pathological changes and prophylactically prevent occurrence of NCDs.
In this review, I described the role of dietary polyphenols in the prevention of NCDs,
and discussed the possible utility of several polyphenols as prophylactic agents for
obesity, CVD, T2DMM, and cancer. Polyphenols are classified based on structure;
particularly, flavonoids, which is further divided into six major subclasses, are the most
common dietary polyphenols, and help in the prevention of NCDs. In addition,
consumption of polyphenols was associated with a reduced risk of T2DMM and
obesity. The preventive effect on NCD by polyphenols such as epigallocatechin gallate
and resveratrol was associated with potent anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects.
Furthermore, these polyphenols regulated the signaling pathway, associated with
NCDs. Polyphenol contributed to NCD prevention, and the protective effects may have
resulted from its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effect. The intake of polyphenolrich
diets such as vegetable and fruit is important for prevention of NCDs. In future, the
difference in polyphenol preventive effects and novel mechanism for preventing NCDs
with polyphenol, need to be clarified.
Non communicable diseases, Reactive oxygen species, Polyphenol,
Cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, Cancers and chronic
Laboratory of Molecular Health Science of Food, Department of Food Bioscience and Biotechnology, College of Bioresource Sciences, Nihon University (NUBS), Fujisawa, Japan.