Latex, a milky fluid found in several plants, is widely used for many purposes, and its proteins have been investigated. Many studies have shown that latex produced by some plant species is a natural source of biologically active compounds, and many of the hydrolytic enzymes are related to health benefits. Research into the characterization and industrial and pharmaceutical utility of latex has progressed in recent years. Latex proteins are associated with plants’ defense mechanisms, including against attack by fungi. In this respect, there are several biotechnological applications of antifungal proteins. Some findings reveal that antifungal proteins inhibit fungi by interrupting the synthesis of fungal cell walls or rupturing the membrane. Moreover, both phytopathogenic and clinical fungal strains are susceptible to latex proteins. The present review describes some important features of proteins isolated from plant latex which have presented in vitro antifungal activities: protein classification, function, molecular weight, isoelectric point, as well as the fungal species that are inhibited by them. We also discuss their mechanisms of action.