Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by gradually loss of renal mass and functions. It has become a global health problem with hundreds of millions people affected. Both its incidence and prevalence are increasing over time. More than $20,000 are spent on each patients per year. The economic burden on the patients as well as the society is heavy. And their life quality becomes worsen over time. However, there are still limited effective therapeutic strategies on CKD. Patients mainly rely on dialysis and renal transplantation, which cannot prevent all the complications of CKD. Great efforts are needed in the understanding the nature of CKD progression as well as developing effective therapeutic methods, including pharmacological agents. This paper reviews three aspects in the research of CKD that may show great interests to those who devote in bioanalysis, biomedicine and drug development, including important endogenous biomarkers quantification, mechanisms underlying CKD progression and current status of CKD therapy.