Should we Try to Alleviate Immunosenescence and Inflammaging - Why, How and to What Extent?

Author(s): Jacek M. Witkowski*, Ewa Bryl, Tamas Fulop.

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 25 , Issue 39 , 2019

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Abstract:

With advancing age, immune responses of human beings to external pathogens, i.e., bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, and to internal pathogens - malignant neoplasm cells - become less effective. Two major features in the process of aging of the human immune system are immunosenescence and inflammaging. The immune systems of our predecessors co-evolved with pathogens, which led to the occurrence of effective immunity. However, the otherwise beneficial activity may pose problems to the organism of the host and so it has builtin brakes (regulatory immune cells) and - with age - it undergoes adaptations and modifications, examples of which are the mentioned inflammaging and immunosenescence. Here we describe the mechanisms that first created our immune systems, then the consequences of their changes associated with aging, and the mechanisms of inflammaging and immunosenescence. Finally, we discuss to what extent both processes are detrimental and to what extent they might be beneficial and propose some therapeutic approaches for their wise control.

Keywords: Immune system aging, evolution, immunosenescence, inflammaging, immune cells, senescent cells, human.

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VOLUME: 25
ISSUE: 39
Year: 2019
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DOI: 10.2174/1381612825666191111153016
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