Proteins are indispensable components of living organisms, which are derived mainly from dietary proteins through metabolism. Dietary proteins are degraded by endogenous digestive enzymes to di- or tri-peptides and free amino acids (AAs) in the small intestine lumen and then absorbed into blood and lymph through intestinal epithelial cells via diverse transporters. Microorganisms are involved not only the proteins catabiosis, but also the AAs, especially essential AAs, anabolism. Probiotics regulate these processes by providing exogenous proteases and AAs and peptide transporters, and reducing hazardous substances in the food and feed. But the core mechanism is a modulating of the composition of intestinal microorganisms through their colonization, exclusion of pathogens. The other effects of probiotics are associated with normal intestinal morphology, which implies the enterocytes secrete more enzymes to decompose dietary proteins and absorb more nutrients.
Keywords: Regulation, probiotics, dietary protein, amino acids (AAs), metabolism, intestinal flora, intestinal epithelial cells (IECs)
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