Effects of IGF-1 on the Cardiovascular System

Author(s): Milan Obradovic, Sonja Zafirovic, Sanja Soskic, Julijana Stanimirovic, Andreja Trpkovic, Danimir Jevremovic, Esma R. Isenovic*.

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 25 , Issue 35 , 2019

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Abstract:

Cardiovascular (CV) diseases are the most common health problems worldwide, with a permanent increase in incidence. Growing evidence underlines that insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a very important hormone responsible for normal CV system physiology. IGF-1 is an anabolic growth hormone, responsible for cell growth, differentiation, proliferation, and survival. Despite systemic effects, IGF-1 exerts a wide array of influences in the CV system affecting metabolic homeostasis, vasorelaxation, cardiac contractility and hypertrophy, autophagy, apoptosis, and antioxidative processes. The vasodilatory effect of IGF-1, is achieved through the regulation of the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and, at least partly, through enhancing inducible NOS (iNOS) activity. Also, IGF-1 stimulates vascular relaxation through regulation of sodium/potassiumadenosine- triphosphatase. Numerous animal studies provided evidence of diverse influences of IGF-1 in the CV system such as vasorelaxation, anti-apoptotic and prosurvival effects. Human studies indicate that low serum levels of free or total IGF-1 contribute to an increased risk of CV and cerebrovascular disease. Large human trials aiming at finding clinical efficacy and outcome of IGF-1-related therapy are of great interest.

We look forward to the development of new IGF 1 therapies with minor side effects. In this review, we discuss the latest literature data regarding the function of IGF-1 in the CV system in the physiological and pathophysiological conditions.

Keywords: Cardiovascular system, cardiovascular disease, IGF-1, vasodilatory effect, anti-apoptotic effect, tissue restructuring effects, antiaging effects.

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