An Assessment of the Effects of Azodicarbonamide-Containing Diet on Neurobehaviour, Brain Antioxidant Status and Membrane Lipid Peroxidation Status in Rats

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Author(s): Anthony Tope Olofinnade, Adegboyega Adeyeba, Adejoke Yetunde Onaolapo, Olakunle James Onaolapo*.

Journal Name: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
(Formerly Current Medicinal Chemistry - Central Nervous System Agents)

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Background: Azodicarbonamide is a dough-enhancer used in the process of bread-making in countries like Nigeria. While there have been suggestions that it is a sensitizer of the respiratory system, there is a dearth of information on its central nervous system effects.

Aim: This study assessed the central nervous system effects of azodicarbonamide (ADA) in rats. Objectives: The effects of ADA-containing diet on neurobehaviour, brain antioxidant status, and neuromorphology of select brain regions in rats was examined.

Methods: Forty adult rats were randomly-assigned into four groups of ten rats each, and were given standard diet or diet containing ADA at 1, 2 and 4% respectively. Rats were fed standard diet or ADA-containing diet for a period of 28 days. Weekly body weight assessment and daily estimation of food intake were done. Behavioural tests {in the Open field, Y-maze, radial-arm maze, and elevated plus maze (EPM)} were conducted on day 29. Twenty-four hours after the last behavioural test, animals were euthanised, whole brains were dissected, weighed, and either homogenised for assessment of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status; or sectioned and processed for general histology.

Results: Consumption of ADA-containing diet was associated with significant decrease in weight gain/food intake, and significant suppression of horizontal locomotion and rearing behaviours; however, grooming activity increased significantly. Also, there was significant reduction of open-arm time in the EPM and significant increase in Y-maze alternation (at the lowest concentration of ADA). ADA-containing diet was not associated with significant changes in brain oxidative status or neuromorphology.

Conclusion: The study showed that while ADA-containing diet may alter neurobehaviour in rats; this was not associated with evidence of brain oxidative stress or neuro-histomorphological alterations.

Keywords: Dough–enhancer, food additive, Neurobehaviour, Oxidative stress, Neuromorphology, Central inhibition

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(E-pub Ahead of Print)
DOI: 10.2174/1871524919666191104154009