Angiogenesis plays a central role in human physiology from reproduction and fetal development to wound healing and tissue repair/regeneration. Clinically relevant therapies are needed for promoting angiogenesis in order to supply oxygen and nutrients after transplantation, thus relieving the symptoms of ischemia. Increase in angiogenesis can lead to restoration of damaged tissues, thereby leading the way for successful tissue regeneration. Tissue regeneration is a broad field that has shown the convergence of various interdisciplinary fields, wherein living cells in conjugation with biomaterials have been tried and tested on to the human body. Although there is a prevalence of various approaches that hypothesize enhanced tissue regeneration via angiogenesis, none of them have been successful in gaining clinical relevance. Hence, the current review summarizes the recent cell-based and cell free (exosomes, extracellular vesicles, micro-RNAs) therapies, gene and biomaterial-based approaches that have been used for angiogenesis-mediated tissue regeneration and have been applied in treating disease models like ischemic heart, brain stroke, bone defects and corneal defects. This review also puts forward a concise report of the pre-clinical and clinical studies that have been performed so far; thereby presenting the credible impact of the development of biomaterials and their 3D concepts in the field of tissue engineering and regeneration, which would lead to the probable ways for heralding the successful future of angiogenesis-mediated approaches in the greater perspective of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
Keywords: angiogenesis, stem cells, cell and gene therapy, biomaterials, tissue engineering, 3D bioprinting, scaffold, exosomes, miRNA
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