Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a public health burden and its co-existence with hypertension is long established in the context of the metabolic syndrome. Both DM and hypertension are major risk factors, for end-stage renal disease, cardiovascular events and mortality. Strict blood pressure (BP) control in diabetics has been associated with a cardiovascular and renal risk decrease. Inhibitors of the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) in the proximal tubule is a relatively novel class of agents for treatment of type 2 DM. Inhibition of SGLT-2 co-transporter combines proximal tubule diuretic and osmotic diuretic action leading to glucose reabsorption reduction and mild natriuretic and diuretic effects. On this basis, several studies showed that treatment with SGLT-2 inhibitors can effectively decrease hyperglycemia but also increase BP control and reduce renal outcomes and cardiovascular mortality. Based on such evidence, the recent guidelines for the management of type 2 diabetes now suggest that SGLT-2 inhibitors should be preferred among oral agents in combination with metformin, in patients at increased cardiovascular risk, chronic kidney disease or heart failure. This review summarizes the existing data from studies evaluating the effect of SGLT-2 inhibitors on BP, and its potential value for cardio and nephroprotection.
Keywords: blood pressure, SGLT-2 inhibitors, empagliflozin, canagliflozin, dapaglifloziblood pressure, dapagliflozin
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