Background: Pesticides are increasingly used in agriculture and households, but they are
also considered a major pollutant to the environment. Carbofuran (CAR; 2,3-dihydro-2,2-
dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate) is a widely used pesticide due to its effectiveness on
Objectives: A simple and green method was suggested for the extraction and determination of CAR
in different matrices.
Methods: A diazotization reaction involving the use of the drug compound metoclopramide was utilized
in this study. A red dye product, which was formed from the diazotization coupling between
CAR and diazotized metoclopramide (DMCP), was extracted using cloud point extraction with the
nonionic surfactant Triton X-114 and measured at a wavelength of 515 nm.
Results: The linearity of the extracted method was over a concentration range of 0.1-0.5 µg/mL (r2 =
0.996) for CAR with a detection limit of 0.064 µg/mL and enrichment factors of about 148 folds for
CAR. The mean recovery percentage was in the range of 99-102% for water and soil samples with
precision (RSD%) of less than 0.4%.
Conclusion: The described method was effectively utilized in the simultaneous extraction of CAR
from water and soil samples.