Impact of Lopinavir/Ritonavir and Efavirenz-Based Antiretroviral Therapy on the Lipid Profile of Chinese HIV/AIDS Treatment-Naïve Patients in Beijing: A Retrospective Study

Author(s): Lili Dai*, An Liu, Hongwei Zhang, Hao Wu, Tong Zhang, Bin Su, Ying Shao, Jianwei Li, Jiangzhu Ye, Sarah Robbins Scott, Supriya D. Mahajan*, Stanley A Schwartz, Hongwei Yu, Lijun Sun.

Journal Name: Current HIV Research

Volume 17 , Issue 5 , 2019

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Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is associated with lipid abnormalities that contribute to increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) events among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Although disorders of lipid metabolism associated with ART have been described before in developed countries, data on lipid profile disorders associated with ART use in China are limited. This study aimed to examine the changes in lipid profile among patients with HIV/AIDS who initiated lopinavir/ritonavir LPV/r or efavirenz (EFV)-based antiretroviral treatment regimens, which continue to be widely used China and other developing countries.

Methods: This is a retrospective, matched case-control study of HIV-positive patients initiating either LPV/r or EFV regimens at the Beijing You’an Hospital, Capital Medical University between July 2012 and January 2017. Generalized estimating equations were used to compare the differences in total cholesterol [TC], triglycerides [TG], low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C], and highdensity lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C] at baseline and up to 24-months after ART initiation between the two treatment arms.

Results: Baseline characteristics, including age, sex, CD4 cell count, viral load, and serum lipids, which were comparable between the two groups. The LPV/r-based regimen group had increased TC, TG, HDL-C, and LDL-C after 24-months of treatment. In the EFV-regimen group, TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C were increased compared to baseline, while the TC/HDL-C ratio decreased, and TG did not change significantly. After 24-months of treatment, the percentage of patients with dyslipidemia in the LPV/r group was much higher than in the EFV group (84.0% vs. 52.6%, P<0.001), and 17(10%) patients on LPV/r-based regimens had severe dyslipidemia. Patients on LPV/r-based regimens were at increased odds of hypercholesterolemia (odds ratio [OR]=1.709, P=0.038), hypertriglyceridemia (OR=4.315, P<0.001), and high TC/HDL-C ratio (OR=1.951, P=0.003). However, no significant difference was found in HDL-C (OR=1.246, P=0.186) or LDL-C (OR=1.253, P=0.410) between the treatment groups.

Conclusion: Both LPV/r or EFV treatment regimens impacted patients’ lipid profiles. Compared to EFV-based regimens, patients on LPV/r-based regimens had increased odds of dyslipidemia, such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, or high TC/HDL-C ratio; however, there was no obvious effect on LDL-C, which is more relevant to the development of the cardiovascular disease.

Keywords: Human immunodeficiency virus, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, lipid profile, anti-retroviral therapy, lopinavir/ ritonavir, cardiovascular disease.

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VOLUME: 17
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Year: 2019
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DOI: 10.2174/1570162X17666191025115508
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