In spite of the progress of conventional vaccines, improvements are required due to concerns about the low immunogenicity of the toxicity, instability, and the need for multiple administrations of the vaccines. To overcome the mentioned problems, nanotechnology has recently been incorporated into vaccine development. Nanotechnology increasingly plays an important role in vaccine development nanocarrier-based delivery systems that offer an opportunity to increase the cellular and humoral immune responses. The use of nanoparticles in vaccine formulations allows not only enhanced immunogenicity and stability of antigen, but also targeted delivery and slow release. Over the past decade, nanoscale size materials such as virus-like particles, liposomes, ISCOMs, polymeric, inorganic nanoparticles and emulsions have gained attention as potential delivery vehicles for vaccine antigens, which can both stabilize vaccine antigens and act as adjuvants. This advantage is attributable to the nanoscale particle size, which facilitates uptake by antigenpresenting cells (APCs), then leading to efficient antigen recognition and presentation. Modifying the surfaces of nanoparticles with different targeting moieties permits the delivery of antigens to specific receptors on the cell surface, thereby stimulating selective and specific immune responses. This review provides an overview of recent advances in nanovaccinology.