Detailed Molecular Biochemistry for Novel Therapeutic Design Against Nipah and Hendra Virus: A Systematic Review

Author(s): Shreya Bhattacharya, Shreyeshi Dhar, Arundhati Banerjee, Sujay Ray*.

Journal Name: Current Molecular Pharmacology

Volume 13 , Issue 2 , 2020

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Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV) of genus Henipavirus are the deadliest zoonotic viruses, which cause severe respiratory ailments and fatal encephalitis in humans and other susceptible animals. The fatality rate for these infections had been alarmingly high with no approved treatment available to date. Viral attachment and fusion with host cell membrane is essential for viral entry and is the most essential event of viral infection. Viral attachment is mediated by interaction of Henipavirus attachment glycoprotein (G) with the host cell receptor: Ephrin B2/B3, while viral fusion and endocytosis are mediated by the combined action of both viral glycoprotein (G) and fusion protein (F).

Conclusion: This review highlights the mechanism of viral attachment, fusion and also explains the basic mechanism and pathobiology of this infection in humans. The drugs and therapeutics used either experimentally or clinically against NiV and HeV infection have been documented and classified in detail. Some amino acid residues essential for the functionality of G and F proteins were also emphasized. Therapeutic designing to target and block these residues can serve as a promising approach in future drug development against NiV and HeV.

Keywords: Nipah virus, hendra virus, viral pathogenesis, host cell entry, animal models, current therapeutics, proposed drug targets.

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