Background: Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have quickly developed into biomedical research as a novel strong tool for the potential treatment of various human diseases. They are based on altered gene expression. In spite of the availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), there is a specific interest in developing siRNAs as a therapeutic agent for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) due to several problems including toxicity and drug resistance along with long term treatment. The successful use of siRNAs for therapeutic goals needs safe and effective delivery to specific cells and tissues. Indeed, the efficiency of gene silencing depends on the potency of the carrier used for siRNA delivery. The combination of siRNA and nano-carriers is a potent method to prevent limitations of siRNA formulation. Three steps were involved in non-viral siRNA carriers such as complex formation of siRNA with cationic carrier, conjugation of siRNA with small molecules, and encapsulation of siRNA within nanoparticles.
Conclusion: In this mini-review, we describe the designed siRNAs and their carriers against HIV-1 infections both in vitro and in vivo.