Background: Biological sensors revolutionize the method of diagnoses of diseases from early to final
stages using the biomarkers present in the body. Biosensors are advantageous due to the involvement of minimal
sample collection with improved specificity and sensitivity for the detection of biomarkers.
Methods: Conventional biopsies restrict problems like patient non-compliance, cross-infection and high cost and to
overcome these issues biological samples like saliva, sweat, urine, tears and sputum progress into clinical and diagnostic
research for the development of non-invasive biosensors. This article covers various non-invasive measurements
of biological samples, optical-based, mass-based, wearable and smartphone-based biosensors for the detection
Results: The demand for non-invasive, rapid and economic analysis techniques escalated due to the modernization
of the introduction of self-diagnostics and miniature forms of devices. Biosensors have high sensitivity and
specificity for whole cells, microorganisms, enzymes, antibodies, and genetic materials.
Conclusion: Biosensors provide a reliable early diagnosis of cancer, which results in faster therapeutic outcomes
with in-depth fundamental understanding of the disease progression.