Water pollution due to waste effluents of the textile industry is seriously causing various health problems
in humans. Water pollution with pathogenic bacteria, especially Escherichia coli (E. coli) and other microbes
is due to the mixing of fecal material with drinking water, industrial and domestic sewage, pasture and
agricultural runoff. Among the chemical pollutants, organic dyes due to toxic nature, are one of the major contaminants
of industrial wastewater. Adequate sanitation services and drinking quality water would eliminate 200
million cases of diarrhea, which results in 2.1 million less deaths caused by diarrheal disease due to E. coli each
year. Nanotechnology is an excellent platform as compared to conventional treatment methods of water treatment
and remediation from microorganisms and organic dyes. In the current study, toxicity and carcinogenicity of the
organic dyes have been studied as well as the remediation/inactivation of dyes and microorganism has been discussed.
Remediation by biological, physical and chemical methods has been reviewed critically. A physical process
like adsorption is cost-effective, but can’t degrade dyes. Biological methods were considered to be ecofriendly
and cost-effective. Microbiological degradation of dyes is cost-effective, eco-friendly and alternative to
the chemical reduction. Besides, certain enzymes especially horseradish peroxidase are used as versatile catalysts
in a number of industrial processes. Moreover, this document has been prepared by gathering recent research
works related to the dyes and microbial pollution elimination from water sources by using heterogeneous photocatalysts,
metal nanoparticles catalysts, metal oxides and enzymes.