Background: Chronic heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome with typical symptoms
that can occur at rest or on effort. It requires patients to manage their lifestyle with their disease and
when to notify their healthcare provider. The study was aimed to identify medication adherence and
associated factors among chronic heart failure clients on follow up Oromia region, West Ethiopia,
Methods: Institutional based cross-sectional study design was employed, after selecting three hospitals
by lottery method and allocating respondents to the three hospitals proportionally. A total of 424
patients were admitted to the medical ward and/or chronic follow up of Nekemte referral, Gimbi, and
Shambu hospitals. The data was collected using a structured questionnaire. The data was entered into
Epi-data version 3.1, cleared, explored, and then exported to SPSS windows version 24.0 for further
analysis. Variable having a p-value less than 0.05 in the bivariate analysis was a candidate for multivariable
analysis and the effect of confounding variables was observed. Variables having a p-value
less than 0.05 in the multivariable analysis were assumed significant.
Results: A total of 424 respondents were included in the final analysis giving a 95.3% response rate.
The result indicated that more than half of the study participants have adhered to prescribed medication.
Respondents with good medication adherence were more likely to adhere to good self-care behavior
[AOR (95% CI of OR) = 3.5(2.044, 5.96)]. Respondents whose limited fluid intake was one
or half-liter per day were more likely to adhere to the medication [AOR (95% CI of OR) = 2.5(1.43,
4.49)]. It was also found that those patients who avoided spices, sauces and others in food are more
likely to adhere to the medication [AOR (95% CI of OR) = 2.2 (1.152, 4.039)].
Conclusion and Recommendation: Even if more than half of the study respondents have good medication
and self-care adherence, still it needs great attention in health education over their visit. Health
institutions are strongly recommended to give health education for clients and researchers to use advanced
study design for measuring medication adherence and self-care behaviors.