Study of HIV Resistance Mutations Against Antiretrovirals using Bioinformatics Tools

Author(s): Roca Tárcio Peixoto, Lima Felipe Souza Nogueira, Santos Alcione de Oliveira, Vieira Deusilene Souza, Botelho-Souza Luan Felipo*.

Journal Name: Current HIV Research

Volume 17 , Issue 5 , 2019

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Abstract:

Background: Antiretroviral drugs to HIV-1 (ARV) are divided into classes: Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs); Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs); Protease Inhibitors (PIs); Integrase Inhibitors (INIs); fusion inhibitors and entry Inhibitors. The occurrence of mutations developing resistance to antiretroviral drugs used in HIV treatment take place in a considerable proportion and has accumulated over its long period of therapy.

Objective: This study aimed to identify resistance mutations to antiretrovirals used in the treatment of HIV-1 in strains isolated from Brazilian territory deposited at Genbank, as well as to relate to the clinical significance and mechanism of action.

Methods: Elucidation of these mutations was by comparative method of peptide sequence resulting from genes encoding therapeutic targets in HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) of the strains with a reference sequence through bioinformatic genetic information manipulation techniques.

Results: Of the 399 sequences analyzed, 121 (30.3%) had some type of mutations associated with resistance to some class of antiretroviral drug. Resistance to NNRTIs was the most prevalent, detected in 77 (63.6%) of the 121 mutated sequences, compared to NRTIs and PIs, whose resistance was detected in 60 (49.6%) and 21 (17.3%), respectively, and to INIs, only 1 (0.8%) sample showed associated resistance mutation.

Conclusion: Resistance to HIV ARV was detected at a considerable rate of 30.3%, showing some concerns about the percentage of viral strains that escape the established therapeutic regimen and that circulate currently in Brazil. The non-use of NNRTIs in Brazil is justified by the emergence of resistance mutations. The low prevalence of mutations against INIs is because drugs in this class have a high genetic barrier.

Keywords: HIV, resistance, mutation, antiretrovirals, POL gene, GenBank.

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DOI: 10.2174/1570162X17666191019114250
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