Background: Antioxidant response elements (ARE) play a key role in the expression of
Nrf2 target genes by regulating the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE pathway, which offers protection against
toxic agents and oxidative stress-induced diseases.
Objective: To develop a database of putative AREs for all the genes in the zebrafish genome. This
database will be helpful for researchers to investigate Nrf2 regulatory mechanisms in detail.
Methods: To facilitate researchers functionally characterize zebrafish AREs, we have developed a
database of AREs, Zebrafish Antioxidant Response Element Database (ZFARED), for all the
protein-coding genes including antioxidant and mitochondrial genes in the zebrafish genome. The
browsers. The back end of the database was developed using Perl scripts and Perl-CGI and Perl-
Results: ZFARED is the first database on the AREs in zebrafish, which facilitates fast and
efficient searching of AREs. AREs were identified using the in-house developed Perl algorithms
database, researchers can access the AREs based on chromosome number (1 to 25 and M for
mitochondria), strand (positive or negative), ARE pattern and keywords. Users can also specify the
size of the upstream/promoter regions (5 to 30 kb) from transcription start site to access the AREs
located in those specific regions.
Conclusion: ZFARED will be useful in the investigation of the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE pathway and its
gene regulation. ZFARED is freely available at http://zfared.buc.edu.in/.