Background: In resource-rich settings, the rate of mother-to-child transmission of human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has dramatically decreased by virtue of a combination of preventive
strategies during the last two decades.
Case Presentation: We present a case of progressive developmental milestone loss in a toddler with
previously unknown congenitally acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, complicated
by an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) coinfection.
Conclusion: Our report underscores the differential diagnosis between HIV encephalopathy and
EBV encephalitis and the vertical transmission of the HIV infection, which constitutes an alarming
issue in terms of public health.
Keywords: Human immunodeficiency virus, Epstein-Barr virus, vertical transmission, encephalopathy, encephalitis, developmental
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