Background: Arum conophalloides (A. conophalloides) is a wild edible delicate plant,
widely used in traditional medicine.
Objective: This study aimed to examine the effects of A. conophalloides extracts on biochemical,
molecular, and histopathological changes in the rat.
Methods: Fifty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups (10 each) as follows: G1
or control, received distilled water; G2 and G3, treated with the aqueous extract at doses of 200 and
400 mg/kg; G4 and G5, treated with the hydroalcoholic extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. Prior
to and at the end of the experiments, the serum levels of biochemistry parameters and the relative expression
of miR-122 were assessed. Moreover, the liver and kidney tissues were examined microscopically.
Results: Liver and kidney tissues showed normal structure in all groups. There were no significant
changes in biochemical indices or the expression of miR-122 in the extract-treated groups at the dose
of 200 mg/kg. However, the group that received the aqueous extract at the dose of 400 mg/kg exhibited
a significantly lower level of HDL, LDL, ALT, and ALP in comparison to the control. Additionally,
miR-122 expression in this group exhibited a 10-fold increase (P=0.009).
Conclusion: The serum level of hepatocyte-specific miR-122 will be more helpful in detecting hepatic
changes in early stages than ALT and AST activity or histopathological evaluations of liver sections.
Our findings highlight the potential hepatotoxicity of A. conophalloides aqueous extract in a rat