Background: Arum conophalloides (A. conophalloides) is a wild edible delicate plant, widely used in traditional medicine.
Objective: This study aimed to examine the effects of A. conophalloides extracts on biochemical, molecular, and histopathological changes in rat.
Method: Fifty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups (10 each) as follows: G1 or control, received distilled water; G2 and G3, treated with the aqueous extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg; G4 and G5, treated with the hydroalcoholic extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. Prior to and at the end of the experiments, the serum levels of biochemistry parameters and the relative expression of miR-122 were assessed. Moreover, the liver and kidney tissues were examined microscopically.
Results: Liver and kidney tissues showed normal structure in all groups. There were no significant changes in biochemical indices or the expression of miR-122 in the extract-treated groups at the dose of 200 mg/kg. However, the group that received the aqueous extract at the dose of 400 mg/kg exhibited a significantly lower level of HDL, LDL, ALT, and ALP in comparison to the control. Additionally, miR-122 expression in this group exhibited 10-fold increase (P=0.009).
Conclusion: The serum level of hepatocyte-specific miR-122 will be more helpful in detecting hepatic changes in early stages than ALT and AST activity or histopathological evaluations of liver sections. Our findings highlight the potential hepatotoxicity of A. conophalloides aqueous extract in rat model.