Decreasing fossil fuels reserves and growing concerns are driving the utilization of renewable feedstocks as green fuel sources. Heteropolyacids (HPAs) is one of the most promising catalytic materials in green biodiesel production. Its unique chemical and physical properties are outstanding, and could allow the preparation of composite materials. In this review, esterification/transesterification for biodiesel synthesis using various types of HPAs base catalysts including pristine HPAs, substituted HPAs, supported HPAs and encapsulated HPAs has been described. In addition, esterification/transesterification reaction conditions like reaction time and temperature, alcohol content and catalyst dosage affect the catalytic activity of the HPAs base catalysts are also discussed in detail. Finally, the present drawbacks and future challenges on HPAs base catalytic systems for the production of biodiesel are also addressed in the concluding remarks.
Keywords: Heteropolyacids, Heterogeneous catalysis, Esterification and transesterification, Biodiesel
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