Post-translational Modifications are Required for Circadian Clock Regulation in Vertebrates

Author(s): Yoshimi Okamoto-Uchida, Junko Izawa, Akari Nishimura, Atsuhiko Hattori, Nobuo Suzuki, Jun Hirayama*.

Journal Name: Current Genomics

Volume 20 , Issue 5 , 2019

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Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Circadian clocks are intrinsic, time-tracking systems that bestow upon organisms a survival advantage. Under natural conditions, organisms are trained to follow a 24-h cycle under environmental time cues such as light to maximize their physiological efficiency. The exact timing of this rhythm is established via cell-autonomous oscillators called cellular clocks, which are controlled by transcription/ translation-based negative feedback loops. Studies using cell-based systems and genetic techniques have identified the molecular mechanisms that establish and maintain cellular clocks. One such mechanism, known as post-translational modification, regulates several aspects of these cellular clock components, including their stability, subcellular localization, transcriptional activity, and interaction with other proteins and signaling pathways. In addition, these mechanisms contribute to the integration of external signals into the cellular clock machinery. Here, we describe the post-translational modifications of cellular clock regulators that regulate circadian clocks in vertebrates.

Keywords: Circadian clock, cellular clock, clock protein, post-translational modification, transcription, clock gene.

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VOLUME: 20
ISSUE: 5
Year: 2019
Page: [332 - 339]
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DOI: 10.2174/1389202919666191014094349
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