Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects the central
nervous system. There are several factors that cause AD, like, intracellular hyperphosphorylated Tau
tangles, collection of extracellular Amyloid-β42 and generation of reactive oxygen species due to mitochondrial
dysfunction. This review analyses the most active target of AD and both types of AD-like
early-onset AD and late-onset AD. BACE1 is a β-secretase involved in the cleavage of amyloid precursor
protein and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. The presenilin proteins play a critical role
in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer malady by intervening the intramembranous cleavage of amyloid
precursor protein and the generation of amyloid β. The two homologous proteins PS1 and PS2 speak
to the reactant subunits of particular γ-secretase edifices that intercede an assortment of cellular processes.
Natural products are common molecular platforms in drug development in AD. Many natural
products are being tested in various animal model systems for their role as a potential therapeutic target
in AD. Presently, there are a few theories clarifying the early mechanisms of AD pathogenesis.
Recently, research advancements in the field of nanotechnology, which utilize macromolecular strategies
to make drugs in nanoscale measurements, offer nanotechnology-based diagnostic tools and drug
carriers which are highly sensitive for effective drug targeting in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.