Incretin contains two peptides named glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1) and glucose-dependent
insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). Drug therapy using incretin has become a new strategy for diabetic
treatments due to its significant effects on improving insulin receptors and promoting insulinotropic
secretion. Considering the fact that diabetes millitus is a key risk factor for almost all age-related diseases,
the extensive protective roles of incretin in chronic diseases have received great attention. Based
on the evidence from animal experiments, where incretin can protect against the pathophysiological
processes of neurodegenerative diseases, clinical trials for the treatments of Alzheimer’s disease (AD)
and Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients are currently ongoing. Moreover, the protective effect of incretin
on heart has been observed in cardiac myocytes, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells of vessels.
Meanwhile, incretin can also inhibit the proliferation of aortic vascular smooth muscle cells, which can
induce atherosclerogenesis. Incretin is also beneficial for diabetic microvascular complications, including
nephropathy, retinopathy and gastric ulcer, as well as the hepatic-related diseases such as NAFLD
and NASH. Besides, the anti-tumor properties of incretin have been proven in diverse cancers including
ovarian cancer, pancreas cancer, prostate cancer and breast cancer.