Trigeminal Neuralgia: Basic and Clinical Aspects

Author(s): Erika Ivanna Araya, Rafaela Franco Claudino, Elcio Juliato Piovesan, Juliana Geremias Chichorro*.

Journal Name: Current Neuropharmacology

Volume 18 , Issue 2 , 2020

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

The trigeminal nerve is the largest of all cranial nerves. It has three branches that provide the main sensory innervation of the anterior two-thirds of the head and face. Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is characterized by sudden, severe, brief, and stabbing recurrent episodes of facial pain in one or more branches of the trigeminal nerve. Pain attacks can occur spontaneously or can be triggered by non-noxious stimuli, such as talking, eating, washing the face, brushing teeth, shaving, a light touch or even a cool breeze. In addition to pain attacks, a proportion of the patients also experience persistent background pain, which along with autonomic signs and prolonged disease duration, represent predictors of worse treatment outcomes. It is now widely accepted that the presence of a neurovascular compression at the trigeminal root entry zone is an anatomic abnormality with a high correlation with classical TN. However, TN may be related to other etiologies, thus presenting different and/or additional features. Since the 1960s, the anticonvulsant carbamazepine is the drug of choice for TN treatment. Although anti-epileptic drugs are commonly used to treat neuropathic pain in general, the efficacy of carbamazepine has been largely limited to TN. Carbamazepine, however, is associated with dose-limiting side-effects, particularly with prolonged usage. Thus, a better understanding and new treatment options are urgently warranted for this rare, but excruciating disease.

Keywords: Neuropathic orofacial pain, symptomatology, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic, pharmacological treatment.

[1]
Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society (IHS) The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd Edition. Cephalalgia,; , 2018, 38, pp. (1)1-211.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0333102417738202]
[2]
Penman, J. Trigeminal neuralgia. In: Bruyn, G. W.; Klawans, H. L. Harold L. Handbook of Clinical Neurology; Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1968.
[3]
Katusic, S.; Beard, C.M.; Bergstralth, E.; Kurland, L.T. Incidence and clinical features of trigeminal neuralgia, Rochester, Minnesota, 1945-1984. Ann. Neurol., 1990, 27(1), 89-95.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.410270114]
[4]
Yoshimasu, F.; Kurland, L.T.; Elveback, L.R. Tic Douloureux in Rochester, Minnesota, 1945-1969. Neurology, 1972, 22(9), 952-956.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/wnl.22.9.952]
[5]
Rozen, T.D. Trigeminal neuralgia and glossopharyngeal neuralgia. Neurol. Clin., 2004, 22(1), 185-206.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0733-8619(03)00094-X]
[6]
Hall, G.C.; Carroll, D.; Parry, D.; McQuay, H.J. Epidemiology and treatment of neuropathic pain: The UK primary care perspective. Pain, 2006, 122(1), 156-162.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2006.01.030]
[7]
De Toledo, I.P.; Conti Réus, J.; Fernandes, M.; Porporatti, A.L.; Peres, M.A.; Takaschima, A.; Linhares, M.N.; Guerra, E.; De Luca Canto, G. Prevalence of trigeminal neuralgia. J. Am. Dent. Assoc., 2016, 147(7), 570-576.e2.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adaj.2016.02.014]
[8]
Eboli, P.; Stone, J.L.; Aydin, S.; Slavin, K.V. Historical characterization of trigeminal neuralgia. Neurosurgery, 2009, 64(6), 1183-1187.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1227/01.NEU.0000339412.44397.76]
[9]
Zakrzewska, J.M.; Jensen, T.S. History of facial pain diagnosis. Cephalalgia, 2017, 37(7), 604-608.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0333102417691045]
[10]
Kaufmann, A.M.; Price, A.V. A History of the Jannetta procedure. J. Neurosurg., 2019, 1-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2018.10.JNS181983]
[11]
Bangash, T.H. Trigeminal neuralgia: Frequency of occurrence in different nerve branches. Anesthesiol. Pain Med., 2011, 1(2), 70-72.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/kowsar.22287523.2164]
[12]
Mueller, D.; Obermann, M.; Yoon, M-S.; Poitz, F.; Hansen, N.; Slomke, M-A.; Dommes, P.; Gizewski, E.; Diener, H-C.; Katsarava, Z. Prevalence of trigeminal neuralgia and persistent idiopathic facial pain: A population-based study. Cephalalgia, 2011, 31(15), 1542-1548.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0333102411424619]
[13]
Maarbjerg, S.; Gozalov, A.; Olesen, J.; Bendtsen, L. Trigeminal neuralgia: a prospective systematic study of clinical characteristics in 158 patients. Headache, 2014, 54(10), 1574-1582.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/head.12441]
[14]
De Toledo, I.P.; Conti, R.J.; Fernandes, M.; Porporatti, A.L.; Peres, M.A.; Takaschima, A.; Linhares, M.N.; Guerra, E.; De Luca Canto, G. Prevalence of trigeminal neuralgia: A systematic review. J. Am. Dent. Assoc., 2016, 147(7), 570-576.e2.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adaj.2016.02.014]
[15]
Mason, W.E.; Kollros, P.; Jannetta, P.J. Trigeminal neuralgia and its treatment in a 13-month-old child: A review and case report. J. Craniomandib. Disord., 1991, 5(3), 213-216.
[16]
Steczkowska, M.; Herman-Sucharska, I.; Gleń, A.; Gergont, A.; Skowronek-Bała, B. Trigeminalgia caused by neurovascular compression in 12 years old girl. Przegl. Lek., 2007, 64(11), 952-955.
[17]
Bender, M.T.; Pradilla, G.; James, C.; Raza, S.; Lim, M.; Carson, B.S. Surgical treatment of pediatric trigeminal neuralgia: Case series and review of the literature. Childs Nerv. Syst., 2011, 27(12), 2123-2129.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-011-1593-8]
[18]
Dubey, A.; Mujoo, S.; Sakarde, S.B.; Dubey, A.K. Paroxysmal neuralgia in pediatric population--a diagnostic dilemma for physicians and dental practioners. Kathmandu Univ. Med. J.(KUMJ), 2018, 10(40), 74-77.
[19]
Jensen, T.S.; Rasmussen, P.; Reske-Nielsen, E. Association of trigeminal neuralgia with multiple sclerosis: Clinical and pathological features. Acta Neurol. Scand., 1982, 65(3), 182-189.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0404.1982.tb03076.x]
[20]
Solaro, C.; Brichetto, G.; Amato, M.P.; Cocco, E.; Colombo, B.; D’Aleo, G.; Gasperini, C.; Ghezzi, A.; Martinelli, V.; Milanese, C.; Patti, F.; Trojano, M.; Verdun, E.; Mancardi, G.L. PaIMS study Group. The prevalence of pain in multiple sclerosis: A multicenter Cross-sectional study. Neurology, 2004, 63(5), 919-921.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000137047.85868.d6]
[21]
Hooge, J.P.; Redekop, W.K. Trigeminal neuralgia in multiple sclerosis. Neurology, 1995, 45(7), 1294-1296.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/wnl.45.7.1294]
[22]
Herzberg, L. Familial trigeminal neuralgia. Arch. Neurol., 1980, 37(5), 285-286.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archneur.1980.00500540063007]
[23]
Duff, J.M.; Spinner, R.J.; Lindor, N.M.; Dodick, D.W.; Atkinson, J.L. Familial trigeminal neuralgia and contralateral hemifacial spasm. Neurology, 1999, 53(1), 216-218.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/wnl.53.1.216]
[24]
Smyth, P.; Greenough, G.; Stommel, E. Familial trigeminal neuralgia: Case reports and review of the literature. Headache, 2003, 43(8), 910-915.
[25]
Braga, F.M.; Bonatelli, A. de P.; Suriano, I.; Canteras, M. Familial trigeminal nuralgia. Surg. Neurol., 1986, 26(4), 405-408.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0090-3019(86)90146-1]
[26]
Savica, R.; Laganà, A.; Siracusano, R.; Calabrò, R.S.; Ferlazzo, E.; Musolino, R. Idiopathic familial trigeminal neuralgia: A case report. Neurol. Sci., 2007, 28(4), 196-198.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-007-0820-2]
[27]
Kirkpatrick, D.B. Familial trigeminal neuralgia: Case report. Neurosurgery, 1989, 24(5), 758-761.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1227/00006123-198905000-00018]
[28]
Sandell, T.; Holmen, J.; Eide, P.K. Hypertension in patients with cranial nerve vascular compression syndromes and comparison with a population-based Cohort. J. Neurosurg., 2013, 119(5), 1302-1308.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2013.7.JNS13231]
[29]
Jannetta, P.J. Neurovascular compression in cranial nerve and systemic disease. Ann. Surg., 1980, 192(4), 518-525.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00000658-198010000-00010]
[30]
Sendeski, M.; Aguiar, P.H.; Zanetti, M.V.; Teixeira, M.J.; Cescato, V.Â. Neurovascular compression associated with trigeminal neuralgia and systemic arterial hypertension: Surgical treatment. Stereotact. Funct. Neurosurg., 2002, 79(3-4), 284-290.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000070841]
[31]
Teruel, A.; Ram, S.; Kumar, S.K.S.; Hariri, S.; Clark, G.T. Prevalence of hypertension in patients with trigeminal neuralgia. J. Headache Pain, 2009, 10(3), 199-201.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10194-009-0107-5]
[32]
Pan, S-L.; Yen, M-F.; Chiu, Y-H.; Chen, L-S.; Chen, H-H. increased risk of trigeminal neuralgia after hypertension: A population-based study. Neurology, 2011, 77(17), 1605-1610.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0b013e3182343354]
[33]
Bennetto, L.; Patel, N.K.; Fuller, G. Trigeminal neuralgia and its management. BMJ, 2007, 334(7586), 201-205.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.39085.614792.BE]
[34]
van Kleef, M.; van Genderen, W.E.; Narouze, S.; Nurmikko, T.J.; van Zundert, J.; Geurts, J.W.; Mekhail, N. World institute of medicine. 1. Trigeminal neuralgia. Pain Pract., 2009, 9(4), 252-259.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-2500.2009.00298.x]
[35]
Zakrzewska, J. M.; Linskey, M. E. Trigeminal neuralgia. BMJ, 2015, 350(mar12 4), h1238-h1238.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.h1238.]
[36]
Mačianskytė, D.; Janužis, G.; Kubilius, R.; Adomaitienė, V.; Ščiupokas, A. Associations between chronic pain and depressive Symptoms in patients with trigeminal neuralgia. Medicina (Kaunas), 2011, 47(7), 386-392.
[37]
Obermann, M.; Yoon, M.; Sensen, K.; Maschke, M.; Diener, H.; Katsarava, Z. Efficacy of pregabalin in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Cephalalgia, 2008, 28(2), 174-181.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2982.2007.01483.x]
[38]
Bohluli, B.; Motamedi, M.H.K.; Bagheri, S.C.; Bayat, M.; Lassemi, E.; Navi, F.; Moharamnejad, N. Use of botulinum toxin A for Drug-refractory Trigeminal Neuralgia: Preliminary report. Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod., 2011, 111(1), 47-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tripleo.2010.04.043]
[39]
Tanrikulu, L.; Hastreiter, P.; Bassemir, T.; Bischoff, B.; Buchfelder, M.; Dörfler, A.; Naraghi, R. New clinical and morphologic aspects in trigeminal neuralgia. World Neurosurg., 2016, 92, 189-196.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2016.04.119]
[40]
Sindou, M.; Howeidy, T.; Acevedo, G. Anatomical observations during microvascular decompression for idiopathic trigeminal Neuralgia with correlations between topography of pain and site of the Neurovascular conflict. Prospective study in a series of 579 Patients. Acta Neurochir. (Wien), 2002, 144(1), 1-12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s007010200000]
[41]
Younis, S.; Maarbjerg, S.; Reimer, M.; Wolfram, F.; Olesen, J.; Baron, R.; Bendtsen, L. Quantitative sensory testing in classical trigeminal neuralgia-a blinded study in patients with and without concomitant persistent pain. Pain, 2016, 157(7), 1407-1414.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000528]
[42]
Neto, H.S.; Camilli, J.A.; Marques, M.J. Trigeminal neuralgia is caused by maxillary and mandibular nerve entrapment: Greater incidence of right-sided facial symptoms is due to the foramen rotundum and foramen ovale being narrower on the right side of the cranium. Med. Hypotheses, 2005, 65(6), 1179-1182.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2005.06.012]
[43]
Rasmussen, P. Facial pain. IV. A Prospective study of 1052 patients with a view of: Precipitating factors, associated symptoms, objective psychiatric and neurological symptoms. Acta Neurochir. (Wien), 1991, 108(3-4), 100-109.
[44]
Simms, H.N.; Honey, C.R. The importance of autonomic symptoms in trigeminal neuralgia. J. Neurosurg., 2011, 115(2), 210-216.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2011.4.JNS101843]
[45]
Sinay, V.; Bonamico, L.; Dubrovsky, A. Subclinical sensory abnormalities in trigeminal neuralgia. Cephalalgia, 2003, 23(7), 541-544.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1468-2982.2003.00581.x]
[46]
Nurmikko, T.J. Altered cutaneous sensation in trigeminal neuralgia. Arch. Neurol., 1991, 48(5), 523-527.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archneur.1991.00530170087025]
[47]
Bowsher, D.; Miles, J.B.; Haggett, C.E.; Eldridge, P.R. Trigeminal neuralgia: A quantitative sensory perception threshold study in patients who had not undergone previous invasive procedures. J. Neurosurg., 1997, 86(2), 190-192.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/jns.1997.86.2.0190]
[48]
Maier, C.; Baron, R.; Tölle, T.R.; Binder, A.; Birbaumer, N.; Birklein, F.; Gierthmühlen, J.; Flor, H.; Geber, C.; Huge, V.; Krumova, E.K.; Landwehrmeyer, G.B.; Magerl, W.; Maihöfner, C.; Richter, H.; Rolke, R.; Scherens, A.; Schwarz, A.; Sommer, C.; Tronnier, V.; Uçeyler, N.; Valet, M.; Wasner, G.; Treede, R.D. Quantitative sensory testing in the German Research Network on neuropathic pain (DFNS): Somatosensory abnormalities in 1236 patients with sifferent neuropathic pain syndromes. Pain, 2010, 150(3), 439-450.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2010.05.002]
[49]
Ichida, M.C.; de Almeida, A.N.; Nobrega, J.C.M. da; Teixeira, M.J.; de Siqueira, J.T.T.; de Siqueira, S.R.D.T. Sensory abnormalities and masticatory function after microvascular decompression or balloon compression for trigeminal neuralgia compared with carbamazepine and healthy controls. J. Neurosurg., 2015, 122(6), 1315-1323.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2014.9.JNS14346]
[50]
Benoliel, R.; Zini, A.; Khan, J.; Almoznino, G.; Sharav, Y.; Haviv, Y. Trigeminal neuralgia (Part II): Factors affecting early pharmacotherapeutic outcome. Cephalalgia, 2016, 36(8), 747-759.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0333102415611406]
[51]
Taylor, R.S. Multiple sclerosis potpourri. paroxysmal symptoms, seizures, fatigue, pregnancy, and more. Phys. Med. Rehabil. Clin. N. Am., 1998, 9(3), 551-559. [vi.].
[52]
Zakrzewska, J.M.; Patsalos, P.N. Long-term cohort study comparing medical (Oxcarbazepine) and surgical management of Intractable trigeminal neuralgia. Pain, 2002, 95(3), 259-266.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0304-3959(01)00406-7]
[53]
Di Stefano, G.; La Cesa, S.; Truini, A.; Cruccu, G. Natural history and Outcome of 200 outpatients with classical trigeminal neuralgia treated with carbamazepine or oxcarbazepine in a tertiary centre for neuropathic pain. J. Headache Pain, 2014, 15(1), 34.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1129-2377-15-34]
[54]
Heinskou, T.B.; Maarbjerg, S.; Wolfram, F.; Rochat, P.; Brennum, J.; Olesen, J.; Bendtsen, L. Favourable prognosis of trigeminal neuralgia when enrolled in a multidisciplinary management program - a two-year prospective real-life study. J. Headache Pain, 2019, 20(1), 23.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s10194-019-0973-4]
[55]
Wu, T-H.; Hu, L-Y.; Lu, T.; Chen, P-M.; Chen, H-J.; Shen, C-C.; Wen, C-H. Risk of psychiatric disorders following trigeminal neuralgia: A nationwide Population-based retrospective cohort study. J. Headache Pain, 2015, 16(1), 64.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s10194-015-0548-y]
[56]
Tepper, S. J. Cranial neuralgias. Contin. Lifelong Learn. Neurol., 2018, 24(4-Headache), 1157-1178.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/CON.0000000000000637.]
[57]
Zakrzewska, J.M.; Wu, J.; Mon-Williams, M.; Phillips, N.; Pavitt, S.H. Evaluating the impact of trigeminal neuralgia. Pain, 2017, 158(6), 1166-1174.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000853]
[58]
Melek, L.N.; Smith, J.G.; Karamat, A.; Renton, T. Comparison of the neuropathic pain symptoms and psychosocial impacts of trigeminal neuralgia and painful posttraumatic trigeminal neuropathy. J. Oral Facial Pain Headache, 2019, 33(1), 77-88.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.11607/ofph.2157]
[59]
Melek, L.N.; Devine, M.; Renton, T. The psychosocial impact of orofacial pain in trigeminal neuralgia patients: A systematic review. Int. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg., 2018, 47(7), 869-878.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijom.2018.02.006]
[60]
Tan, C-Y.; Shahrizaila, N.; Goh, K-J. Clinical characteristics, pain, and quality of life experiences of trigeminal neuralgia in a Multi-Ethnic asian Cohort. J. Oral Facial Pain Headache, 2017, 31(4), e15-e20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.11607/ofph.1793]
[61]
Chang, B.; Zhu, W.; Li, S. Effects of depression and anxiety on microvascular decompression outcome for trigeminal neuralgia patients. World Neurosurg., 2019, 128, e556-e561.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.04.194]
[62]
Hamlyn, P.J.; King, T.T. Neurovascular compression in tigeminal neuralgia: A clinical and anatomical study. J. Neurosurg., 1992, 76(6), 948-954.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/jns.1992.76.6.0948]
[63]
Marinković, S.; Gibo, H.; Todorović, V.; Antić, B.; Kovacević, D.; Milisavljević, M.; Cetković, M. Ultrastructure and immunohistochemistry of the trigeminal peripheral myelinated axons in patients with neuralgia. Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg., 2009, 111(10), 795-800.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2009.07.020]
[64]
Hardy, D.G.; Rhoton, A.L. Microsurgical relationships of the superior cerebellar artery and the trigeminal nerve. J. Neurosurg., 1978, 49(5), 669-678.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/jns.1978.49.5.0669]
[65]
Klun, B.; Prestor, B. Microvascular relations of the trigeminal nerve: An anatomical study. Neurosurgery, 1986, 19(4), 535-539.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1227/00006123-198610000-00007]
[66]
Yousry, I.; Moriggl, B.; Holtmannspoetter, M.; Schmid, U.D.; Naidich, T.P.; Yousry, T.A. Detailed anatomy of the motor and sensory roots of the trigeminal nerve and their neurovascular Relationships: A magnetic resonance imaging study. J. Neurosurg., 2004, 101(3), 427-434.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/jns.2004.101.3.0427]
[67]
Xiao, A.; Lei, T.; Xiao, J.; Li, Z.; Zhao, C.; You, C. MR Cisternography in the posterior fossa: The evaluation of trigeminal neurovascular compression. Turk. Neurosurg., 2013, 23(2), 218-25. doi: 10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.6768-12.0.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.6768-12.0]
[68]
Jannetta, P.J. Arterial compression of the trigeminal nerve at the pons in patients with trigeminal neuralgia. 1967. J. Neurosurg., 2007, 107(1), 216-219.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/JNS-07/07/0216]
[69]
Love, S.; Hilton, D.A.; Coakham, H.B. Central demyelination of the Vth nerve root in trigeminal neuralgia associated with vascular compression. Brain Pathol., 1998, 8(1), 1-11. discussion 11-2.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3639.1998.tb00126.x]
[70]
Hilton, D.A.; Love, S.; Gradidge, T.; Coakham, H.B. Pathological findings associated with trigeminal neuralgia caused by vascular compression. Neurosurgery, 1994, 35(2), 299-303.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1227/00006123-199408000-00017]
[71]
Devor, M.; Govrin-Lippmann, R.; Rappaport, Z.H. Mechanism of trigeminal neuralgia: An ultrastructural analysis of trigeminal root specimens obtained during microvascular decompression surgery. J. Neurosurg., 2002, 96(3), 532-543.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/jns.2002.96.3.0532]
[72]
Devor, M.; Amir, R.; Rappaport, Z.H. Pathophysiology of trigeminal neuralgia: The ignition hypothesis. Clin. J. Pain, 2002, 18(1), 4-13.
[73]
Rappaport, Z.H.; Devor, M. Trigeminal neuralgia: The role of self-sustaining discharge in the trigeminal ganglion. Pain, 1994, 56(2), 127-138.
[74]
Burchiel, K.J.; Slavin, K.V. On the natural history of Trigeminal Neuralgia. Neurosurgery, 2000, 46(1), 152-154. discussion 11-2.
[75]
Sabalys, G.; Juodzbalys, G.; Wang, H-L. Aetiology and pathogenesis of trigeminal neuralgia: A comprehensive review. J. Oral Maxillofac. Res., 2012, 3(4)e2
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5037/jomr.2012.3402]
[76]
Liao, C.; Zhang, W.; Yang, M.; Zhong, W.; Liu, P.; Li, S. Microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia: The role of mechanical allodynia. World Neurosurg., 2016, 91, 468-472.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2016.04.092]
[77]
Obermann, M.; Yoon, M-S.; Ese, D.; Maschke, M.; Kaube, H.; Diener, H-C.; Katsarava, Z. Impaired trigeminal nociceptive processing in patients with trigeminal neuralgia. Neurology, 2007, 69(9), 835-841.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000269670.30045.6b]
[78]
Maarbjerg, S.; Gozalov, A.; Olesen, J.; Bendtsen, L. Concomitant persistent pain in classical trigeminal neuralgia-evidence for different subtypes. Headache, 2014, 54(7), 1173-1183.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/head.12384]
[79]
Takahashi, N.; Kikuchi, S.; Dai, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Fukuoka, T.; Noguchi, K. Expression of auxiliary beta subunits of sodium channels in primary afferent neurons and the effect of nerve injury. Neuroscience, 2003, 121(2), 441-450.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0306-4522(03)00432-9]
[80]
Lulz, A. P.; Kopach, O.; Santana-Varela, S.; Wood, J. N. The role of Na v 1.9 Channel in the development of neuropathic orofacial pain associated with trigeminal neuralgia. Mol. Pain, 2015, 11, s12990-015-0076.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12990-015-0076-4.]
[81]
Siqueira, S.R.D.T.; Alves, B.; Malpartida, H.M.G.; Teixeira, M.J.; Siqueira, J.T.T. Abnormal expression of voltage-gated sodium channels Nav1.7, Nav1.3 and Nav1.8 in trigeminal neuralgia. Neuroscience, 2009, 164(2), 573-577.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.08.037]
[82]
Obermann, M.; Rodriguez-Raecke, R.; Naegel, S.; Holle, D.; Mueller, D.; Yoon, M-S.; Theysohn, N.; Blex, S.; Diener, H-C.; Katsarava, Z. Gray matter volume reduction reflects chronic pain in trigeminal neuralgia. Neuroimage, 2013, 74, 352-358.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.02.029]
[83]
Yan, J.; Li, M.; Wang, T.; Zhan, W.; Jiang, G. Structural changes in the gray matter in patients with trigeminal neuralgia: A voxel-based morphometric study. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao, 2015, 35(8), 1180-1183.
[84]
Li, M.; Yan, J.; Li, S.; Wang, T.; Zhan, W.; Wen, H.; Ma, X.; Zhang, Y.; Tian, J.; Jiang, G. Reduced volume of gray matter in patients with trigeminal neuralgia. Brain Imaging Behav., 2017, 11(2), 486-492.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11682-016-9529-2]
[85]
Kumar, S.; Rastogi, S.; Kumar, S.; Mahendra, P.; Bansal, M.; Chandra, L. Pain in trigeminal neuralgia: Neurophysiology and measurement: A comprehensive review. J. Med. Life, 2013, 6(4), 383-388.
[86]
Krafft, R.M. Trigeminal neuralgia. Am. Fam. Phys., 2008, 77(9), 1291-1296.
[87]
Lambru, G.; Matharu, M.S. SUNCT, SUNA and trigeminal neuralgia. Curr. Opin. Neurol., 2014, 27(3), 325-331.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WCO.0000000000000090]
[88]
Paliwal, V.K.; Uniyal, R.; Gupta, D.K.; Neyaz, Z. Trigeminal neuralgia or SUNA/SUNCT: A dilemma unresolved. Neurol. Sci., 2015, 36(8), 1533-1535.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-015-2215-0]
[89]
VanderPluym, J.; Richer, L. Tic versus TAC: Differentiating the neuralgias (trigeminal neuralgia) from the Cephalalgias (SUNCT and SUNA). Curr. Pain Headache Rep., 2015, 19(2), 473.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11916-014-0473-9]
[90]
Lambru, G.; Trimboli, M.; Tan, S.V.; Al-Kaisy, A. Medullary infarction causing coexistent SUNCT and trigeminal neuralgia. Cephalalgia, 2017, 37(5), 486-490.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0333102416652093]
[91]
Nakamura, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Yamashita, M. Small medullary Infarction presenting as painful Trigeminal sensory neuropathy. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 1996, 61(2), 138.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.61.2.138]
[92]
Golby, A.J.; Norbash, A.; Silverberg, G.D. Trigeminal neuralgia resulting from infarction of the root entry zone of the trigeminal nerve: Case report. Neurosurgery, 1998, 43(3), 620-623.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006123-199809000-00130]
[93]
Warren, H.G.; Kotsenas, A.L.; Czervionke, L.F. Trigeminal and concurrent glossopharyngeal neuralgia secondary to lateral medullary infarction. AJNR Am. J. Neuroradiol., 2006, 27(3), 705-707.
[94]
Bergouignan, M. Fifteen years of trial therapy of essential trigeminal neuralgia: The place of diphenylhydantoin and its derivatives. Rev. Neurol. (Paris), 1958, 98(5), 414-416.
[95]
Tate, R.; Rubin, L.M.; Krajewski, K.C. Treatment of refractory Trigeminal neuralgia with intravenous phenytoin. Am. J. Heal. Pharm, 2011, 68(21), 2059-2061.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2146/ajhp100636]
[96]
Blom, S. Trigeminal neuralgia: Its treatment with a new anticonvulsant drug (G-32883). Lancet (London, England), 1962, 1(7234), 839-840.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(62)91847-0]
[97]
Campbell, F.G.; Graham, J.G.; Zilkha, K.J. Clinical trial of carbazepine (Tegretol) in trigeminal neuralgia. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 1966, 29(3), 265-267.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.29.3.265]
[98]
Killian, J.M.; Fromm, G.H. Carbamazepine in the treatment of neuralgia. Use of side effects. Arch. Neurol., 1968, 19(2), 129-136.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archneur.1968.00480020015001]
[99]
Nicol, C.F. A Four year double-blind study of tegretol in facial pain. Headache, 1969, 9(1), 54-57.
[100]
Rockliff, B.W.; Davis, E.H. Controlled sequential trials of carbamazepine in trigeminal neuralgia. Arch. Neurol., 1966, 15(2), 129-136.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archneur.1966.00470140019003]
[101]
Davis, E.H. Clinical trials of tegretol in trigeminal neuralgia. Headache, 1969, 9(1), 77-82.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-4610.1969.hed0901077.x]
[102]
Lloyd-Smith, D.L.; Sachdev, K.K. A Long-term low-dosage study of carbamazepine in trigeminal neuralgia. Headache, 1969, 9(1), 64-72.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-4610.1969.hed0901064.x]
[103]
Wiffen, P.J.; Derry, S.; Moore, R.A.; McQuay, H.J. Carbamazepine for Acute and Chronic Pain in Adults. In: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; Wiffen, P.J., Ed.; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2005; p. CD005451.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD005451.]
[104]
Buescher, J.J. Carbamazepine for acute and chronic pain. Am. Fam. Phys., 2006, 73(9), 1549-1550.
[105]
Post, R. M. Time course of clinical effects of carbamazepine: Implications for mechanisms of action. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 1988, 49Suppl, 35-48.
[106]
Nicoletti, P.; Barrett, S.; McEvoy, L.; Daly, A. K.; Aithal, G.; Lucena, M. I.; Andrade, R. J.; Wadelius, M.; Hallberg, P.; Stephens, C.; Bjornsson, E.S.; Friedmann, P. Kainu, k.; Laitinen, T.; Marson, A.; Molokhia, M.; Phillips, E.; Pichler, W.; Romano, A.; Shear, N.; Sills, G.; Tanno, L.K.; Swale, A.; Floratos, A.; Shen, Y.; Nelson, M.R.; Watkins, P.B.; Daly, M.J.; Morris, A.P.; Alfirevic, A.; Pirmohamed, M. Shared genetic risk factors across carbamazepine- Induced hypersensitivity reactions. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 2019. cpt.1493.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.1493.]
[107]
Mullan, K.A.; Anderson, A.; Illing, P.T.; Kwan, P.; Purcell, A.W.; Mifsud, N.A. HLA-Associated antiepileptic drug-induced Cutaneous adverse reactions. HLA, 2019, 93(6), 417-435.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tan.13530]
[108]
Amstutz, U.; Shear, N.H.; Rieder, M.J.; Hwang, S.; Fung, V.; Nakamura, H.; Connolly, M.B.; Ito, S.; Carleton, B.C. CPNDS clinical recommendation group. Recommendations for HLA-B*15:02 and HLA-A*31:01 genetic testing to reduce the risk of carbamazepine-induced hypersensitivity reactions. Epilepsia, 2014, 55(4), 496-506.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.12564]
[109]
Mockenhaupt, M.; Messenheimer, J.; Tennis, P.; Schlingmann, J. Risk of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in new users of antiepileptics. Neurology, 2005, 64(7), 1134-1138.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/01.WNL.0000156354.20227.F0]
[110]
Chen, C-B.; Hsiao, Y-H.; Wu, T.; Hsih, M-S.; Tassaneeyakul, W.; Jorns, T.P.; Sukasem, C.; Hsu, C-N.; Su, S-C.; Chang, W-C. Risk and association of HLA with oxcarbazepine-induced cutaneous adverse reactions in asians. Neurology, 2017, 88(1), 78-86.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000003453]
[111]
Cruccu, G.; Gronseth, G.; Alksne, J.; Argoff, C.; Brainin, M.; Burchiel, K.; Nurmikko, T.; Zakrzewska, J.M. American Academy of Neurology Society. European federation of neurological society. AAN-EFNS Guidelines on trigeminal neuralgia management. Eur. J. Neurol., 2008, 15(10), 1013-1028.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-1331.2008.02185.x]
[112]
Beydoun, S.; Alarcón, F.; Mangat, S.; Wan, Y. Long-term safety and tolerability of oxcarbazepine in painful diabetic neuropathy. Acta Neurol. Scand., 2007, 115(4), 284-288.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0404.2006.00710.x]
[113]
Besi, E.; Boniface, D.R.; Cregg, R.; Zakrzewska, J.M. Comparison of tolerability and adverse symptoms in oxcarbazepine and Carbamazepine in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia and neuralgiform headaches using the liverpool adverse events profile (AEP). J. Headache Pain, 2015, 16(1), 563.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s10194-015-0563-z]
[114]
Jung, G.H.; You, S.J. Evaluation of hematologic profile may be needed for patients treated with oxcarbazepine. Korean J. Pediatr., 2019.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3345/kjp.2019.00017]
[115]
Intravooth, T.; Staack, A.M.; Juerges, K.; Stockinger, J.; Steinhoff, B.J. Antiepileptic drugs-induced hyponatremia: Review and analysis of 560 hospitalized patients. Epilepsy Res., 2018, 143, 7-10.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2018.03.023]
[116]
Berghuis, B.; de Haan, G-J.; van den Broek, M.P.H.; Sander, J.W.; Lindhout, D.; Koeleman, B.P.C. Epidemiology, pathophysiology and putative genetic basis of carbamazepine- and oxcarbazepine-induced hyponatremia. Eur. J. Neurol., 2016, 23(9), 1393-1399.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.13069]
[117]
Berghuis, B.; Stapleton, C.; Sonsma, A.C.M.; Hulst, J.; de Haan, G-J.; Lindhout, D.; Demurtas, R. EpiPGX Consortium, R.; Krause, R.; Depondt, C.; Kunz, W.S.; Zara, F.; Striano, P.; Craig, J.; Auce, P.; Marson, A.G.; Stefansson, H.; O’Brien, T.J.; Johnson, M.R.; Sills, G.J.; Wolking, S.; Lerche, H.; Sisodiya, S.M.; Sander, J.W.; Cavalleri, G.L.; Koeleman, B.P.C.; McCormack, M. A Genome-Wide association study of sodium levels and drug metabolism in an epilepsy cohort treated with carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine. Epilepsia Open, 2019, 4(1), 102-109.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/epi4.12297]
[118]
Wang, Q-P.; Bai, M. Topiramate versus carbamazepine for the treatment of classical trigeminal neuralgia: A meta-analysis. CNS Drugs, 2011, 25(10), 847-857.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/11595590-000000000-00000]
[119]
Yuan, M.; Zhou, H-Y.; Xiao, Z-L.; Wang, W.; Li, X-L.; Chen, S-J.; Yin, X-P.; Xu, L-J. Efficacy and safety of gabapentin vs. carbamazepine in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia: A meta-analysis. Pain Pract., 2016, 16(8), 1083-1091.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/papr.12406]
[120]
Kowacs, P.A.; Utiumi, M.A.T.; Nascimento, F.A.; Piovesan, E.J.; Teive, H.A.G. OnabotulinumtoxinA for trigeminal neuralgia: A review of the available data. Arq. Neuropsiquiatr., 2015, 73(10), 877-884.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0004-282X20150109]
[121]
Hu, Y.; Guan, X.; Fan, L.; Li, M.; Liao, Y.; Nie, Z.; Jin, L. Therapeutic efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin Type A in trigeminal neuralgia: A systematic review. J. Headache Pain, 2013, 14(1), 72.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1129-2377-14-72]
[122]
Fusco, B.M.; Alessandri, M. Analgesic effect of capsaicin in idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. Anesth. Analg., 1992, 74(3), 375-377.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/00000539-199203000-00011]
[123]
Epstein, J.B.; Marcoe, J.H. Topical application of capsaicin for treatment of oral neuropathic pain and trigeminal neuralgia. Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol., 1994, 77(2), 135-140.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0030-4220(94)90275-5]
[124]
Wagner, T.; Poole, C.; Roth-Daniek, A. The Capsaicin 8% Patch for neuropathic pain in clinical practice: A retrospective analysis. Pain Med., 2013, 14(8), 1202-1211.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pme.12143]
[125]
Radwan, I.A.; Saito, S.; Goto, F. High-concentration tetracaine for the management of trigeminal neuralgia: Quantitative assessment of sensory function after peripheral nerve block. Clin. J. Pain, 2001, 17(4), 323-326.
[126]
Han, K.R.; Kim, C.; Chae, Y.J.; Kim, D.W. Efficacy and safety of high concentration lidocaine for trigeminal nerve block in patients with trigeminal neuralgia. Int. J. Clin. Pract., 2007, 62(2), 248-254.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-1241.2007.01568.x]
[127]
Lemos, L.; Flores, S.; Oliveira, P.; Almeida, A. Gabapentin supplemented with Ropivacain block of trigger points improves pain control and quality of life in trigeminal neuralgia patients when compared with gabapentin alone. Clin. J. Pain, 2008, 24(1), 64-75.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AJP.0b013e318158011a]
[128]
Lemos, L.; Fontes, R.; Flores, S.; Oliveira, P.; Almeida, A. Effectiveness of the association between carbamazepine and peripheral analgesic block with ropivacaine for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. J. Pain Res., 2010, 3, 201-212.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S13154]
[129]
Di Stani, F.; Ojango, C.; Dugoni, D.; Di Lorenzo, L.; Masala, S.; Delfini, R.; Bruti, G.; Simonetti, G.; Piovesan, E.J.; Ruggeri, A.G. combination of pharmacotherapy and Lidocaine analgesic block of the peripheral trigeminal branches for trigeminal neuralgia: A pilot study. Arq. Neuropsiquiatr., 2015, 73(8), 660-664.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0004-282X20150077]
[130]
Kanai, A.; Suzuki, A.; Kobayashi, M.; Hoka, S. Intranasal lidocaine 8% spray for second-division trigeminal neuralgia. Br. J. Anaesth., 2006, 97(4), 559-563.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bja/ael180]
[131]
Tamburin, S.; Schweiger, V.; Magrinelli, F.; Brugnoli, M.P.; Zanette, G.; Polati, E. Effect of 5% Lidocaine medicated plaster on pain intensity and paroxysms in classical trigeminal neuralgia. Ann. Pharmacother., 2014, 48(11), 1521-1524.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1060028014544166]
[132]
Benoliel, R.; Zini, A.; Khan, J.; Almoznino, G.; Sharav, Y.; Haviv, Y. Trigeminal neuralgia (Part II): Factors affecting early pharmacotherapeutic outcome. Cephalalgia, 2016, 36(8), 747-759.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0333102415611406]
[133]
Zakrzewska, J.M.; Palmer, J.; Morisset, V.; Giblin, G.M.; Obermann, M.; Ettlin, D.A.; Cruccu, G.; Bendtsen, L.; Estacion, M.; Derjean, D.; Waxman, S.G.; Layton, G.; Gunn, K.; Tate, S. study investigators. Safety and efficacy of a Nav1.7 selective sodium channel blocker in patients with trigeminal neuralgia: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised withdrawal phase 2a trial. Lancet Neurol., 2017, 16(4), 291-300.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(17)30005-4]
[134]
Bick, S.K.B.; Eskandar, E.N. Surgical treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Neurosurg. Clin. N. Am., 2017, 28(3), 429-438.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nec.2017.02.009]
[135]
Obermann, M. Recent advances in understanding/managing trigeminal neuralgia. F1000 Res., 2019, 8, 505.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.16092.1]
[136]
Patel, S.K.; Liu, J.K. Overview and history of trigeminal neuralgia. Neurosurg. Clin. N. Am., 2016, 27(3), 265-276.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nec.2016.02.002]
[137]
Jannetta, P.J. Vascular compression is the cause of trigeminal neuralgia. APS J., 1993, 2(4), 217-227.
[138]
Barker, F.G.; Jannetta, P.J.; Bissonette, D.J.; Larkins, M.V.; Jho, H.D. The long-term outcome of microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia. N. Engl. J. Med., 1996, 334(17), 1077-1084.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199604253341701]
[139]
Oesman, C.; Mooij, J.J.A. Long-term follow-up of microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia. Skull Base, 2011, 21(5), 313-322.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0031-1284213]
[140]
Akdag, H.; Comert, D.; Akdur, K.; Sakarcan, A.; Seyithanoglu, H.; Hatiboglu, M.A. The efficacy of gamma knife radiosurgery in Patients with trigeminal neuralgia: The initial experience of the Bezmialem Vakif University. Neurol. India, 2019, 67(2), 476-480.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0028-3886.258009]
[141]
Spina, A.; Boari, N.; Gagliardi, F.; Bailo, M.; Iannaccone, S.; Mortini, P. Gamma knife radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia: When? Neurosurg. Rev., 2019, 42(2), 599-601.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10143-019-01099-z]
[142]
Wang, J.Y.; Bender, M.T.; Bettegowda, C. Percutaneous procedures for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Neurosurg. Clin. N. Am., 2016, 27(3), 277-295.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nec.2016.02.005]


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as


Article Details

VOLUME: 18
ISSUE: 2
Year: 2020
Page: [109 - 119]
Pages: 11
DOI: 10.2174/1570159X17666191010094350
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 32
HTML: 4