Pp. 447-474 (28)
Gianni Sagratini, Giovanni Caprioli, Massimo Ricciutelli and Sauro Vittori
Biogenic amines (BAs) are basic molecules present in food formed by
decarboxylation of aminoacids of proteins. They have a particular profile from a
toxicological point of view, and the intake of food with high presence of BAs can
generate various problems and allergic responses. Due to the importance of their
toxicological aspects, BAs are considered as an important indicator of freshness and
quality of food, through the evaluation of specific indices that take into account their
concentration in food, i.e., Biogenic Amine Index (BAI) or the ratio
spermidine/spermine (SPD/SPM). Many foods can be contaminated by the high levels
of BAs as meat, cheese, fish, beer, wine and baby foods, and no regulation exists by
EFSA or FDA except for histamine in fish. The analytical methodologies used for the
detection of the BAs in food are normally based on a primary step of sample
preparation (extraction and purification) and then on a second step of instrumental
analysis that uses high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or gas
chromatography (GC) coupled to various detectors as diode array detector (DAD),
fluorescence detector (FD), mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem mass spectrometry
(MS/MS). Also capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been used for the analysis of BAs in
food. This chapter describes an overview on the presence of BAs in foods and the most
important analytical strategies for their analysis and detection.
Biogenic amines, CE, DAD, Derivatization, FD, GC, HPLC, MS
proteic food, Sample preparation, Shelf life markers.
University of Camerino, School of Pharmacy, Via S. Agostino 1, 62032 Camerino (MC), Italy.