Pp. 417-446 (30)
Yelko Rodríguez-Carrasco and Alberto Ritieni
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungal species which
can usually be found in foodstuffs. The effects of some food-borne mycotoxins are
acute, symptoms of severe illness appearing very quickly. Other mycotoxins occurring
in food have longer term chronic or cumulative effects on health, including the
induction of cancers and immune deficiency. Thus, Regulation (EC) 1881/2006,
partially amended by other Regulations, set maximum contents of some mycotoxins in
different foodstuffs allowing to evaluate risks and take actions to protect public health.
In this chapter, mycotoxins with significant health and food production impact are
discussed by considering the following items: chemical structure, conditions of their
production, occurrence in food, maximum limits, toxicity and analytical methods. The
chapter also includes the exposure assessment approach to these food contaminants,
their metabolism and the proposed biomarkers in the literature. A final remark about
the toxicogenomic approach is also included in the chapter as a future trend in the study
Aflatoxins, Alternaria toxins, Biomarkers, Chromatography,
Emerging fusariotoxins, Exposure assessment, Food, Fumonisins, Mass
spectrometry, Metabolism, Metabolites, Mycotoxins, Ochratoxin A, Occurrence,
Patulin, Trichothecenes, Toxicity, Zearalenone.
University of Valencia, Department of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Av/ Vicent A. Estellés, s/n 46100 Burjassot, Valencia, Spain.