Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) in Foodstuffs and Human Dietary Exposure
Pp. 259-313 (55)
Qian Wu and Kurunthachalam Kannan
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been used as surfactants and
surface protectors in many industrial materials and consumer products. PFASs have
been reported to be associated with numerous adverse health outcomes in humans.
Americans have the highest levels of PFASs in their bodies in comparison with
populations from other countries. To our knowledge, data on the sources and pathways
of human exposure to PFASs are limited. In this study, we determined PFASs in a wide
variety of samples (water, food, indoor dust), and calculated exposure dose from
various environmental sources including diet. A mass balance analysis was performed
by comparison of calculated exposure doses (environmental sources) with modeled
doses (biomonitoring results). PFASs occurred widely in drinking water, food, and
indoor dust. Breast milk is the major source of exposure to PFASs in breast-fed infants.
For PFOS and PFOA, indoor dust and diet are the major sources of exposure in adults.
The results of mass balance analysis showed a good agreement between exposure doses
calculated based on external sources and those modeled from biomonitoring studies.
Drinking water, Exposure assessment, biomonitoring, Foodstuffs,
Perfluoroalkyl substances, PFASs.
Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201, USA.