Background: The thyroid gland influences the metabolic processes in our body by producing
thyroid hormones, and thyroid disorders can range from a harmless goiter to life-threatening cancer.
A growing number of evidence support the link between gut microbiota composition and thyroid
homeostasis. Gut dysbiosis can disrupt the normal gut barrier function, leading to immunologic and
Objective: The aim of this review was to discuss the main features of gut dysbiosis associated with
different thyroid disorders.
Results: Gut microbiota contributes to thyroid hormone synthesis and hydrolysis of thyroid hormones
conjugates. It has been shown that microbial metabolites may play a role in autoimmune thyroid diseases
via modulating the immune system. Intestinal microbiota can contribute to the thyroid malignancies
via controlling DNA damage and apoptosis and influencing inflammatory reactions by the microbiota-
derived metabolites. However, the pathogenic role of altered gut microbiota in different thyroid
disorders has not yet fully elucidated.
Conclusion: Further research is needed to assess the role of alterations of the gut microbiota in disease
onset and development in order to achieve novel strategies for the prevention and treatment of these